no image
Definition : A word which describes the speciality of Noun or Pronoun is called Adjective. 
परिभाषा : जो शब्द किसी संज्ञा या सर्वनाम की विशेषता बताता है, विशेषण कहलाता है | 

1. Qualitative Adjective (गुणवाचक विशेषण) :
A Qualitative Adjective shows the kind or quality of a person or thing.
Examples : good, honest, large, foolish, happy, sad etc.
(a) He is an honest man.
(b) Delhi is a large city.

2. Quantitative Adjective (परिमाणवाचक विशेषण) :
A Quantitative Adjective shows the quantity(how much) of a things.
(i) Definite Quantitative Adjective (निश्चित परिमाणवाचक विशेषण) :
Examples : two kg, three meters, one dozen, two litres etc.
(ii) Indefinite Quantitative Adjective (अनिश्चित परिमाणवाचक विशेषण) :
Examples : some, much, little, any etc.
(a) He has little intelligence.
(b) I ate some rice.
(c) Please bring two litres milk.

3. Numeral Adjective (संख्यावाचक विशेषण) :
A Numeral Adjective shows numbers(how many) of persons or things.
(i) Definite Numeral Adjective (निश्चित संख्यावाचक विशेषण) :
Examples : (Cardinals denote how many) one, two, three
(Ordinals denote order of things) first, second, third
(ii) Indefinite Numeral Adjective (अनिश्चित संख्यावाचक विशेषण) :
Examples : all, many, few, some, any, several, enough etc.
(a) I have three apples.
(b) Some girls are clever.
(c) There are not enough spoons.

4. Demonstrative Adjective (सार्वनामिक विशेषण) :
A Demonstrative Adjective points out specific person or thing.
Examples : (Used with singular nouns) This, That, 
(Used with plural nouns) These, Those
(a) This bag is empty.
(b) That girl is beautiful.
(c) These grapes are sour.
(d) Those boys are playing football.

5. Interrogative Adjective (प्रश्नवाचक विशेषण) :
An Interrogative Adjective is used with nouns to ask questions. 
Examples : What, Which, Whose
(a) What time is it ?
(b) Which book shall we read first ?
(c) Whose laptop is this ?

6. Emphasizing Adjective (जोर डालने वाले विशेषण) :
The words 'own' and 'very' are used as Emphasizing Adjectives.
Examples :
(a) Mind your own business.
(b) This is the very book they want.

7. Exclamatory Adjective (विस्मयबोधक विशेषण) :
The word 'what' is sometimes used as an Exclamatory Adjective.
Examples :
(a) What an idea !
(b) What a handsome boy he is !
no image
Father's Father (paternal grandfather) — दादा (dada)
Father's Mother (paternal grandmother) — दादी (dadi)
Mother's Father (maternal grandfather) — नाना (nana)
Mother's Mother (maternal grandmother) — नानी (nani)

Spouses and parents-in-law
Husband — पति (pati)
Wife — पत्नी (patni)
Husband's Mother (Mother-in-law) — सास (saas)
Husband's Father (Father-in-law) — ससुर (sasur)
Fiancé or Fiancée —-मंगेतर (mangetar)

Siblings and siblings-in-law
Brother — भाई (bhai)
Brother's Wife — भाभी (bhabhi)
Elder Brother — भइया (bhaiya)
Step Brother – सौतेला भाई (sotela bhai)
Step Father – सौतेला पिता (sotela pita)
Step Mother – सौतेली माँ (soteli maa)
Step Sister – सौतेली बहन (soteli bahan)
Adopted Daughter – गोद ली हुई बेटी (god li hui beti)
Adopted Son – गोद लिया पुत्र (god liya hua putra)
Younger Brother — छोटा भाई (chotaa bhaai)
Husband's sister - ननद (nanad)
Sister — बहिन (bahin) or बहन (bahan)
Sister's husband (Brother-in-law) — जीजा (jiijaa) or बहनोई (bahanoii)
Elder Sister — दीदी (didi) or जीजी (jiijii)
Younger Sister — छोटी बहन (choti bahan)
Husband's elder brother — जेठ (jeth)
Husband's younger brother — देवर (devar)
Elder brother's wife — भाभी (bhabhi) or भौजी (bhauji) or भौजाई (bhaujaai)
Younger brother's wife — बहू (bahu) or भयो (bhayo)
Wife's Sister ( sister in law ) — साली (saali)
Wife's Brother ( brother in law ) — साला (sala)
Husband's Sister's Husband — नन्दोई (nandoi)
Wife's sister's husband — साडू (sadu)
Husband's elder brother's wife — जेठानी (jethani)
Husband's younger brother's wife — देवरानी (devrani)

Children and children-in-law
Son — बेटा (beta) or पुत्र (putra)
Son's wife (daughter-in-law) — बहू (bahu)
Daughter — बेटी (beti) or पुत्री (putri)
Daughter's husband (son-in-law) — दामाद (damad) or जमाई (jamai)

Grandson (son's son) — पोता (pota)
Granddaughter (son's daughter) — पोती (poti)
Grandson (daughter's son) — नाती (nati) or नवासा (navasa)
Granddaughter (daughter's daughter) — नातिन (natin) or नवासी (navasi)

Aunts and uncles
Father's younger brother (uncle) — चाचा (chacha)
Father's younger brother's wife (aunt) — चाची (chachi)
Father's elder brother's (Uncle) — ताऊ (taau)
Father's elder brother's wife (Aunt) — ताई (taai)
Father's sister (aunt) — बुआ (bua) or फूफी (phuphi)
Father's sister's husband  — फूफा (phupha)
Mother's brother ( maternal uncle )— मामा (mama)
Mother's brother's wife ( maternal aunty)— मामी (mami)
Mother's sister ( maternal mother )— मौसी (mausi)
Mother's sister's husband ( maternal father )— मौसा (mausa)

Nephews and nieces
Brother's son (nephew) — भतीजा (bhatija)
Sister's son (nephew) — भान्जा (bhanja)
Brother's daughter (niece) — भतीजी (bhatiji)
Sister's daughter (niece) — भान्जी (bhanji)
no image
Rule 1. किसी भी Pronoun का person, number तथा gender अपने से पहले वाले noun के अनुसार आता है |
Examples :
(a) All the students must do their studies.
(b) Every daughter should obey her parents.

Rule 2. जब दो Singular Nouns 'and' से जुड़े हो और उनसे पहले each या every आया हो, तो उसके बाद Verb और Pronoun Singular होगा |
Examples :
(a) Every girl and every teacher was busy in her work.
(b) Each table and each chair was in its place.

Rule 3. जब दो या दो से अधिक Singular Nouns को either or, neither nor, or से जोड़े, तो Pronoun Singular होगा |
Examples :
(a) Either Monika or Richa has purchased her car.
(b) Neither Ramesh nor Suresh has done his work.
(c) Suman or Komal was shopping for her brother marriage.

Rule 4. यदि एक Singular Subject और एक Plural Subject either or, neither nor, or से जुड़े हो, तो Plural Subject को बाद में लगाते है और Pronoun अपने पास वाले Noun के अनुसार आता है |
Example :
(a) Either Sita or her friends forget their mobiles.

Rule 5. दो या तीनों Persons का प्रयोग एक ही वाक्य में होने पर, सबसे पहले Second Person फिर Third Person और अन्त में First Person को लगाते है |
Examples :
(a)  You, he and I are best friends.
(b) You and I can do this work.

Rule 6. यदि किसी वाक्य में 'to be' Verb(is, are, am, was, were etc.) का complement कोई Pronoun हो, तो वह हमेशा Nominative Case होगा |
Example :
Incorrect : It is me who can help you.
Correct : It is I who can help you.

Rule 7. Each other दो लोगों के लिए और one another दो से अधिक लोगों के लिए प्रयोग होता है |
Example :
(a) Ranbir and Deepika love each other.
(b) These children love one another.

Rule 8. यदि Relative Pronoun verb का Subject हो, तो verb Relative Pronoun के antecedent के number और person के अनुसार प्रयोग होती है |
Example :
Incorrect : It is I who is your friend.
Correct : It is I who am your friend.

Rule 9. Relative Pronoun 'who' का प्रयोग generally व्यक्तियों को लिए किया जाता है |
Example :
(a) The girl, who is setting in the corner, is my best friend.

Rule 10. Whom (जिसे, जिसको, जिनको, जिन्हें) का प्रयोग व्यक्तियों के लिए तथा whose (जिनका, जिसका) का प्रयोग व्यक्तियों के साथ-साथ निर्जीव वस्तुओं के लिए भी होता है |
Examples :
(a) This is the boy whom I love.
(b) I know the girl whose brother was murdered.
(c) The computer, whose CPU is not working, is useless.

Rule 11. Which का प्रयोग वस्तुओं तथा जानवरों के लिए करते है | 
Examples :
(a) I have lost the bag which I purchased yesterday.
(b) The horse which I bought has won the race.

Rule 12. That का प्रयोग व्यक्तियों तथा वस्तुओं के लिए करते है | 
Examples :
(a) She behaved in such a manner that I had not hoped.
(b) The plane that landed an hour ago came from Bangkok.

Rule 13. यदि Antecedent से पहले same या such का प्रयोग हो, तो उसके बाद generally Relative Pronoun 'as' लगाते है | 
Example :
Incorrect : This is the same shirt which I gave you.
Correct : This is the same shirt as I gave you.

Rule 14. Relative Pronoun को जितना हो सके अपने Antecedent के पास रखना चाहिए | 
Example :
Incorrect : I have read Shelley's poems, who was a romantic poet.
Correct : I have read poems of Shelley who was a romantic poet.

Rule 15. Reflexive Pronoun कभी भी अकेला किसी Verb का Subject नहीं बन सकता उससे पहले कोई Noun या Pronoun अवश्य आएगा | 
Example :
Incorrect : Myself did this work.
Correct : I myself did this work.

Rule 16. Avail, absent, apply, avenge, betake, drink, enjoy, oversleep, pride, resign आदि Transitive Verbs के साथ Reflexive Pronoun का प्रयोग होता है | 
Example :
(a) The girls absented themselves from the class.
(b) We enjoyed ourselves in the picnic.

Rule 17. दो व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं के लिए either और neither तथा दो से अधिक व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं के लिए any, none का प्रयोग करना चाहिए | 
Examples :
(a) Neither of these two children has stolen your pencil.
(b) None of the sportsmen of our school could get a medal in swimming. 

Rule 18. यदि वाक्य में Indefinite Pronoun 'One' का प्रयोग हुआ है तो अन्त तक Pronoun के स्थान पर one का ही प्रयोग होगा | 
Example :
Incorrect : One should do his duty.
Correct :  One should do one's duty.
no image
Definition - A Pronoun is the word used in the place of a noun.
परिभाषा - संज्ञा के स्थान पर प्रयुक्त होने वाले शब्दों को सर्वनाम कहते हैं ।
Example -
Seema was absent because Seema was ill.
इस वाक्य को इस प्रकार भी कह सकते है :
Seema was absent because she was ill. यहाँ 'she' pronoun है जो की 'Seema' noun की जगह प्रयोग हुआ है।

There are mainly seven types of Pronoun:
सर्वनाम के मुख्यता सात प्रकार होते हैं :

1. Personal Pronoun (पुरुषवाचक सर्वनाम) : ये तीन तरह के Persons के लिए आते हैं ।
(i) First Person (उत्तम पुरुष) : The person who is speaking (बात करने वाला) 
Examples : I, we, my, us, our, mine, ours
(ii) Second Person (मध्यम पुरुष) : The person spoken to (जिससे बात की जाय) 
Examples : You, your, yours
(iii) Third Person (अन्य पुरुष) : The person or thing spoken of (जिसके बारे में बात की जाय) 
Examples : He, she, it, him, her, they, them, hers, his, its, their, theirs

2. Relative Pronoun (सम्बन्धवाचक सर्वनाम) : वे Pronouns जो दो वाक्यों को जोड़ते हैं तथा अपने से पहले प्रयोग हुए noun से सम्बन्ध प्रकट करते है । 
Examples : Who, which, what, that etc.
(a) I know the girl who came here.

3. Interrogative Pronoun (प्रश्नवाचक सर्वनाम) : ये Pronouns प्रश्न (Question) पूछने का कार्य करते हैं । 
Examples : Who, whose, whom, which, what etc.
(a) Who is your father ?
(b) What is your name ?

4. Demonstrative Pronoun (निश्चयवाचक/संकेतवाचक  सर्वनाम) : ये Pronouns किसी noun की तरफ़ संकेत करते हैं । 
Examples : This, that, these, those etc.
(a) This is my house.
(b) That is your shirt.

5. Reflexive Pronoun (निजवाचक सर्वनाम) : ये Pronouns 'self'या 'selves' का प्रयोग करके बनाये जाते हैं तथा जहाँ किसी वाक्य का subject तथा object एक ही व्यक्ति हो वहाँ प्रयोग किये जाते हैं । 
Examples : I का  Myself, We का ourselves, You का yourself, He का himself, She का herself, It का itself, They का themselves
(a) The girl killed herself.
(b) I love myself.

6. Indefinite Pronoun (अनिश्चयवाचक सर्वनाम) : वे Pronouns जो किसी अनिश्चित noun के लिए प्रयोग किये जाते हैं । 
Examples : Any, some, one, few, many, none etc.
(a) Some are born artists.
(b) One must love one's country.

7. Distributive Pronoun (वितरणवाचक सर्वनाम) : वे Pronouns जो वाक्य में प्रयोग हुए व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं में से प्रत्येक का बोध कराते हैं । 
Examples : Each, either, neither etc.
(a) Each of the boys was hard-working.
(b) Either of the two trains goes to Chandigarh.
no image
Possessive case का प्रयोग निम्न प्रकार से हो सकता है :
Rule 1. (A) जीवधारियों के साथ Apostrophe s ('s) लगाकर 
(a) Ram's mother is an accountant.
(b) Sita's pencil has been lost.

Singular Noun में पहले Apostrophe mark (') और इसके बाद s लगाते है और Plural Noun में पहले s और इसके बाद Apostrophe mark लगाते है यदि उसका Plural 's' पर समाप्त हो । 
Example :
The girl's bag. (लड़की का बैग)
Girls' hostel. (लड़कियों का होस्टल)

(B) Personified object के साथ (बेजान चीजों को जानदार मानने पर)
Examples : at death's door, Nature's law, Fortune's favourite etc.

(C) कुछ phrases के साथ 
Examples : An apple of one's eye, at one's wits' end, bird's eye view, fool's paradise etc.

(D) Time, space या weight प्रकट करने वाले Nouns के साथ 
Examples : A day's march, five days' leave, a pound's weight etc.

Rule 2. जो Nouns, 'ce' या 's' से समाप्त होते हो और उनके बाद 'sake' आता हो उन Nouns में सिर्फ Apostrophe (') लगाते हैं 's' नहीं लगाते हैं । 
Examples : for justice' sake, for goodness' sake, for conscience' sake etc.

Rule 3. जब पुरुष, स्त्री और बच्चों के लिए Plural Noun हो और अन्त में 's' न लगा हो तो उसमें Apostrophe mark के साथ 's' लगाते है । 
Examples : men's party, women's room, children's library

Rule 4. जब किसी चीज में दो लोगों की साझेदारी होती है तो 's' बाद वाले Noun में लगाते है । 
Example :
Ravi and Suresh's cupboard is made of wood. (एक cupboard दोनों की है)

यदि दो लोगों की चीजें अलग-अलग होती है तो 's' दोनों Nouns में लगाते है । 
Ravi's and Suresh's cupboards are made of wood. (दो अलग-अलग cupboard)

Rule 5. Compound Nouns के अन्तिम शब्द में 's' लगाकर
Example : This is my brother-in-law's shop.

Rule 6. Double Possessive का कभी प्रयोग नहीं करते है । 
Examples :
(a) Incorrect : Seema's pen's colour is blue.
Correct : The colour of Seema's pen is blue.
(b) Incorrect : My friend's wife's mother has come.
Correct : The mother of my friend's wife has come.

Also Read:
no image
Rule 1. कुछ Nouns के एकवचन (Singular) और बहुवचन (Plural) में सामान रूप रहते हैं ।
Examples : swine, deer, sheep etc. Click here to see more examples
(a) The sheep is grazing. (यहाँ एक भेड़ है)
(b) Many sheep are grazing in the park. (यहाँ कई सारी भेड़ें हैं)

Rule 2. यदि hundred, thousand, dozen से पहले संख्या (number) होती है, तो 's' नहीं लगाते है ।
Examples :
(a) I bought four dozen bananas.
(b) My mother gave me two hundred dollars.

यदि इससे पहले संख्या (number) नहीं होती है, तो Plural बनाने के लिए 's' लगाते है तथा 'of ' का प्रयोग करते है ।
Examples :
(a) Hundreds of monkeys gathered there.
(b) Thousands of euros were spent.

Rule 3. कुछ Nouns देखने में Singular लगते हैं परन्तु meaning में Plural होते हैं ।
Examples : police, military, public etc. Click here to see more examples
(a) The police have arrested the thief.
(b) The people of Singapore are rich.

Rule 4. कुछ Nouns केवल Singular में प्रयोग होते हैं उनका Plural नहीं होता हैं ।
Examples : hair, bread, alphabet, mischief, poetry etc. Click here to see more examples
(a) The old furniture was disposed of.
(b) Her information was wrong.
उपर्युक्त शब्दों का Plural कुछ इस तरह बनाते हैं : articles of furniture, loves of bread, pieces of information etc.

Rule 5. यदि Collective Noun से समूह का बोध हो, तो Singular Verb का प्रयोग करते है और यदि अलग-अलग लोगों का बोध हो, तो Plural Verb का प्रयोग करते है ।
Examples :  Jury, Government, Committee etc.
(a) The committee was one on this point.
(b) The committee were divided on one point.

Rule 6. कुछ Nouns देखने में Plural लगते हैं परन्तु meaning में Singular होते हैं ।
Examples : Physics, news, Mathematics etc. Click here to see more examples
(a) Physics is an interesting subject.
(b) The news of his failure is not true.

Rule 7. कुछ Nouns केवल Plural में प्रयोग होते हैं ।
Examples : tongs, alms, trousers, thanks, scissors etc. Click here to see more examples
(a) Alms are given to the beggars.
(b) Her scissors were very blunt.

Rule 8. कुछ Nouns में बीमारियो के नाम जैसे - measles, mumps, rabies तथा खेलों के नाम जैसे - cards, darts, billiards, draughts, gymnastics, athletics etc. का प्रयोग Singular में ही होता हैं ।
Examples :
(a) Billiards is easier than snooker.
(b) Mumps is an infectious disease.

Rule 9. Abstract और Material Nouns का Plural नहीं बनता, ये Singular form में ही प्रयोग होते हैं ।
Examples : kindness, tin, copper, iron, wheat, milk, water, silver, gold etc.
(a) Wheat is grown in India in larger quantity.
(b) This house is made of brick and stone.

Rule 10. News papers, some countries और books के नाम देखने में Plural लगते हैं लेकिन meaning में Singular होते हैं ।
Examples :
(a) The New York Times has won more prizes than any other news organization.
(b) The United States of America has made great progress in science.
(c) Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone is a famous novel.

Rule 11. Means, Wages, Pains etc Nouns प्रयोग के अनुसार Singular या Plural होते हैं । 
Examples :
(a) Her wages are five hundred rupees per day.
(b) The wages of sin is more than death.

Rule 12. Word का Singular तथा Plural में प्रयोग :
Examples :
Singular : ('प्रतिज्ञा' या 'वचन' के अर्थ में )
She did not keep her word.
Plural : ('शब्द' के अर्थ में)
There are three words in this sentence.

Rule 13. Brother, cloth, fish का Plural में दो अलग-अलग अर्थ में प्रयोग :
Examples :
Brother :
(a) All brothers are living in peace. (brothers -  एक ही माता-पिता के पुत्र)
(b) We are all brethren. (brethren - एक ही समाज के सदस्य)

(a) There are various cloths in the shop. (Cloths - बिना सिले कपड़े या थान)
(b) We wear warm clothes in the winter. (Clothes - सिले हुए कपड़े या पोशाके)

(a) I had fish in the lunch. (Fish - एक समूह में )
(b) There were five fishes in the pond. (Fishes - अलग-अलग रूप में)

Rule 14. कोई Noun किसी Compound word में Adjective का काम करें तो वह हमेशा Singular में प्रयोग होगी । 
Examples : A four-year old child, A three-mile walk, A hundred-rupee note etc.
(a) My father gave me a hundred-rupee note.

Also Read:
no image
Definition - A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing.
परिभाषा - किसी व्यक्ति, स्थान या वस्तु का बोध कराने वाले नाम को संज्ञा कहते है ।

There are mainly five types of Noun:
संज्ञा के मुख्यता पाँच प्रकार होते हैं :

1. Common Noun (जातिवाचक संज्ञा) :
A Common Noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind.
Examples: king, book, girl, boy, table, chair etc.
(a) Ravi is a foolish man.
(b) Sheela is a beautiful girl.

2. Proper Noun (व्यक्तिवाचक संज्ञा) :
A Proper Noun is the name of some particular person, place or thing.
Examples: Agra, The New York Times, Sita, Google etc.
(a) Google is a very popular search engine.
(b) Agra is one of the famous cities of India known for tourism.

3. Collective Noun (समूहवाचक/समुदायवाचक  संज्ञा) :
A Collective Noun is the name of a number of persons or things taken together and spoken as one whole.
Examples: committee, government, police, class, assembly, family etc.
(a) The committee was one on this point.
(b) Please pay my regards to your family.

4. Abstract Noun (भाववाचक संज्ञा) :
An Abstract Noun is the name of quality, action or state considered apart from the object to which it belongs.
Quality - honesty, wisdom, bravery
Action - laughter, theft, judgement
State - childhood, youth, sleep, death
(a) The soldiers were rewarded for their bravery.
(b) We all love honesty.

5. Material Noun (द्रव्यवाचक संज्ञा) :
A Material is the name of material or substance which are used to made things.
Examples: silver, gold, iron, cotton, diamond, plastic etc.
(a) Gold is an expensive metal.
(b) Plastic is used to make containers of different shape.

Also Read:
no image
List of Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives
Good, WellBetterBest
MuchMoreMost(for Quantity)
ManyMoreMost(for Number)
LateLater, LatterLatest, Last
OldOlder, elderOldest, eldest
BeautifulMore BeautifulMost Beautiful
DifficultMore DifficultMost Difficult
IntelligentMore IntelligentMost Intelligent

List of Degrees of Comparison of Adverbs
CleverlyMore CleverlyMost Cleverly
SlowlyMore SlowlyMost Slowly

Also Read Interchange of Degrees of Comparison
no image
Following are the rules with examples of making Plurals of Singular Nouns:

Rule 1. Most of the nouns use ‘s’ to make plurals.

Rule 2. Noun which ends with s, x, z, ch or sh. Add ‘es’ to make plural.

(Exceptional Cases: Axis –Axes, Ox – Oxen)

Rule 3. Noun which ends with vowel and ‘y’. Add ‘s’ to make plural.

Rule 4. Noun which ends with consonant and ‘y’. Replace ‘y’ with ‘ies’ to make plural.

Rule 5. Some Nouns which end with ‘o’, use ‘es’ to make plural.

Some Nouns which end with ‘o’, use ‘s’ to make plural.

Rule 6. Some Nouns which end with ‘f’ or ‘fe’. Replace ‘f’ or ‘fe’ with ‘ves’ to make plural.

Nouns which end with ‘f’ or ‘fe’. Replace ‘f’ or ‘fe’ with ‘s’ to make plural.

Rule 7. Some Irregular Nouns:

Rule 8. Nouns whose Singular and Plural form remains same.
FishFish (Collectively), Fishes (taken separately)
(Collectively) The sea abounds in fish.
(Taken separately) There are twenty fishes in the basket.


(a) The scenery of Switzerland is beautiful.
(b) His hair has turned grey.
(c) He bought new machinery.

Rule 9. Some Nouns look Singular but are Plural.
People, Cattle, Poultry, Vermin, Gentry, Police, Military, Public etc.
(a) Cattle are grazing in the field.
(b) The police have arrested the thief.

Rule 10. Some Nouns look plural but are used as singular.
Civics, Economics, Physics, news, Mechanics, Mathematics, innings etc.
Physics is a difficult subject.

Rule 11. Some Nouns which are only used as Plurals.
thanks, riches, alms, tongs, spectacles, scissors, trousers, spirits, scissors, trousers etc.
Her spectacles are very beautiful.

Rule 12. Compound Nouns:
Daughter-in-law Daughters-in-law
Post office Post offices

Also Read: