no image
Definition : Those words which modifies the meaning of an Adjective, verb or other Adverb are called Adverb.
परिभाषा : संज्ञा, सर्वनाम को छोड़कर विशेषण, क्रिया या किसी क्रिया विशेषण की विशेषता बताने वाले शब्द क्रिया विशेषण कहलाते है |

Following are the main types of the Adverbs. Underlined words in sentences are Adverbs.
1. Simple Adverb (सरल क्रिया विशेषण) : Following are the types of Simple Adverb.

(i) Adverb of Time (कालवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of when something happened, happening or going to happen are called Adverbs of Time.
Examples : early, daily, now, lately, never, soon, recently, always, sometimes etc. 
(a) She went early.
(b) He walks daily.

(ii) Adverb of Place (स्थानवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of where something happened, happening or going to happen are called Adverbs of Place.
Examples : here, away, above, below, everywhere, out, in, there etc.
(a) Come here.
(b) She went away.

(iii) Adverb of Number or Frequency (बारम्बारता वाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of how often something happened, happening or going to happen are called Adverbs of Number or Frequency.
Examples : again, always, each day, everyday, daily, twice, never, always, often etc.
(a) She has come again.
(b) You should always speak the truth.

(iv) Adverb of Manner (रीतिवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of how something happened, happening or going to happen are called Adverbs of Manner.
Examples : fast, hard, well, clearly, slowly, quickly, sadly, loudly etc.
(a) She runs fast.
(b) He reads clearly.

(v) Adverb of Degree or Quantity (मात्रावाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of how much or to which extent something happened, happening or going to happen are called Adverbs of Degree or Quantity.
Examples : quite, too, nearly, almost, much, hardly etc.
(a) She is quite strong.
(b) She is too weak to walk.

(vi) Adverb of Reason (कारणवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of cause or intention of something are called Adverbs of Reason.
Examples : therefore, hence, thus, so, because, as, since, that etc.
(a) He therefore lost the chance.
(b) She ran so dog barked on her.

(vii) Adverb of Affirmation (स्वीकृतिवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of confirmation or acceptance of something are called Adverbs of Affirmation.
Examples : yes, surely, certainly, truly, undoubtedly, clearly, exactly, affirmatively, obviously etc.
(a) Surely, she is rich.
(b) Yes, I will do my work.

(viii) Adverb of Negation (अस्वीकृतिवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of disapproval or rejection of something are called Adverbs of Negation.
Examples : not, no, never, hardly, almost, rarely, scarcely, barely, seldom, rare etc.
(a) I do not know him.
(b) No, she is still here.

2. Interrogative Adverb (प्रश्नवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which use first in sentences and ask questions are called Interrogative Adverbs.
Examples : why, when, where, how etc.
(a) Where do you live ?
(b) How are you ?

3. Relative Adverb (सम्बन्धवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which connect two sentences and modify the verb of sentences come after those words are called Relative Adverbs.
Examples : when, where, why etc.
(a) This is the place where I live.
(b) I know the time when he will come.
no image
Rule 1. Verb अपने subject के number और person के अनुसार आता है |
Examples :
(a) Incorrect : He love her.
Correct : He loves her.
(b) Incorrect : They hates me.
Correct : They hate me.

Rule 2. जब दो Singular Nouns एक ही व्यक्ति या वस्तु को दर्शाये तो verb singular होगा और article 'the' केवल पहले noun के आगे प्रयोग किया जाता है |
Example : The Managing Director and CEO of the company is dead.

जब दो Singular Nouns अलग-अलग व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं को दर्शाये तो verb plural होगा और article 'the' दोनों  के पहले noun के आगे प्रयोग किया जाता है |
Example : The Managing Director and the CEO of the company are dead.

Rule 3.  जब दो या दो से अधिक Singular Subjects 'and' से जुड़े हो तो verb plural होगा |
Example : Geeta and Babita are sisters.

Rule 4. यदि दो subjects एक ही वस्तु या व्यक्ति का भाव दर्शाते हों तो verb singular होगा |
Examples :
(a) Curd and rice is my favourite food.
(b) The cart and horse is ready.

Rule 5. यदि दो singular subjects 'and' से जुड़े हों और उन दोनों के पहले each या every का प्रयोग हो तो उनके साथ verb singular होगा |
Example : Each boy and each girl was in the class.

Rule 6. यदि दो या दो से अधिक singular subjects, either..or, neither...nor, or या nor से जुड़े हों तो verb singular होगा |
Example : Neither Ramesh nor Suresh has eaten chocolates.

Rule 7. यदि दो या दो से अधिक अलग-अलग number के subjects, either..or, neither...nor, or या nor से जुड़े हों तो plural subject को verb के पास रखते है और plural verb का प्रयोग करते है |
Example :  Either Sheela or her friends are gulity. (Plural subject - friends, Plural verb - are)

Rule 8. जब अलग-अलग Persons (First, Second, Third) के subjects 'or' या 'nor' से जुड़े हों तो verb, last Person के अनुसार आयेगा | वाक्य में Persons का क्रम Second, Third , First Person होता है |
Example : You or I have to reach the railway station.

Rule 9. Either, Neither, Each, Every, One of, Many a के साथ singular verb का प्रयोग करते है |
Examples :
(a) Neither of the tasks was easy.
(b) Every student was absent.
(c) Each of his watches is expensive.
(d) Many a girl has come.
(e) One of the girls is very beautiful.

Rule 10. कुछ Nouns, Billiards, Gymnastics, Economics, News, Physics, Innings, Mathematics, Politics etc. देखने में Plural लगते हैं लेकिन meaning में singular होते हैं इसलिए इसके साथ verb भी singular प्रयोग होता है |
Examples :
(a) Every news is not true.
(b) Mathematics is my favourite subject.

Rule 11. जब कोई singular subject दूसरे Noun के साथ with, as well as, like, besides, together with आदि connectors द्वारा जुड़ा हो तो verb इनसे पहले आये हुए शब्द के अनुसार आता है |
Examples :
(a) She, as well as her friends, has watched this movie.
(b) No one, besides your mother, knows her name.
(c) Ramesh, like his brother, is clever.

Rule 12. जब दो Nouns या Pronouns 'not only...but also' से जुड़े हो तो Verb बाद वाले Noun या Pronoun के अनुसार आता है |
Examples :
(a) Not only her friends but also her brother was absented from the class.
(b) Not only the commander but also the soldiers were killed.

Rule 13. Books, newspaper और countries के बाद verb हमेशा singular प्रयोग होता है |
Examples :
(a) Great Expectations is the thirteenth novel by Charles Dickens.
(b) The New York Times is an American newspaper.
(c) The United States has a big air force.

Rule 14. Wages, Means और Pains के अर्थ के अनुसार verb singular या plural होता है |
Examples :
(a) Much pains has been taken.
(b) The pains of life are unbearable.

Rule 15. जब कोई Plural Noun किसी एक certain(निश्चित) measurement(नाप), amount(रकम) या distance(दूरी) को दर्शाता है तो उसके साथ verb singular प्रयोग होता है |
Examples :
(a) Hundred rupees is not a big amount.
(b) Ninety miles is a long distance.

Rule 16. Describe, define, regard, represent, mention, treat आदि verbs के बाद as का प्रयोग अवश्य करते है |
Examples :
(a) She regards me as her father.
(b) She treats him as a gentleman.

Rule 17. Appoint, dare, hear, make, see, need, choose, think आदि verbs के बाद to या as का प्रयोग नहीं करते हैं |
Examples :
(a) You need not come.
(b) She dares not oppose him.

Rule 18. Conditional sentences में If या When से शुरू होने वाली clause में Simple Present Tense तथा second clause में Simple Future Tense का प्रयोग करते हैं |
Examples : If she comes to me, I shall help her.

Rule 19. काल्पनिक शर्त के sentences में If clause Past Perfect Tense में तथा second clause में would have + third form of verb का प्रयोग करते हैं |
Example : If she had come to me, I would have helped her.

Rule 20. यदि If clause वाले का कार्य असम्भव या काल्पनिक हो तो generally, If clause में were verb का प्रयोग करते है तथा main clause में would का प्रयोग करते है |
Example : If I were a bird, I would fly.

Rule 21. यदि Subordinate clause कोई Universal truth या Habitual action हो तो verb Simple Present Tense में प्रयोग करते है |
Example :
(a) She said that the sun rises in the east. (Universal truth)
(b) He said that dogs bark at the strangers. (Habitual action)

Rule 22. यदि Principal clause की verb Present tense या Future tense में है तो Subordinate clause की verb भाव के अनुसार किसी भी tense में हो सकती है |
Examples :
(a) Ram says that Hari has gone to Delhi.
(b) Mohan will say that Seema is a doctor.

Rule 23. यदि Principal clause की verb Past tense में है तो Subordinate clause की verb भी Past tense में होगी |
(a) Sonu told me that Rakesh was writing a book.
(b) He said that the horse had died in the night.

Rule 24. 'Lie' के साथ 'tell' और 'truth' के साथ 'speak' verb का प्रयोग करते है |
Examples :
(a) Do not tell a lie.
(b) Please speak the truth.

Rule 25. Yesterday का प्रयोग Past tense में तथा Tomorrow का प्रयोग Future tense में करते है |
Examples :
(a) He went to school yesterday.
(b) I shall go to station tomorrow.

Rule 26. Principal clause की verb Present या Future tense में हो तो Subordinate clause में may का प्रयोग करते है |
Example : She works hard so that she may get good marks.
Principal clause की verb Past tense में हो तो Subordinate clause में might का प्रयोग करते है |
Example : She worked hard so that she might get good marks.

Rule 27. (I) Generally, shall का प्रयोग First Person(I, We) के साथ तथा will का प्रयोग Second Person (You) और Third Person(He, She, It, They) के साथ future time दिखाने के लिए करते है |
Examples :
(a) I shall go with you.
(b) He will go with you.

(II) Shall का प्रयोग Second या Third Person के साथ Command(आज्ञा), Promise(वायदा), Threat(धमकी) या Determination(पक्का इरादा) प्रकट करने के लिए होता है |
Examples :
(a) Command - You shall have to leave tomorrow.
(b) Promise - You shall get prize for standing first in the class.
(c) Threat -They shall go to prison if they blackmail me.
(d) Determination - He shall find another job.

(III) Will का प्रयोग First Person के साथ Willingness(इच्छा), Promise, Threat या Determination प्रकट करने के लिए होता है |
Examples :
(a) Willingness - I will work late today.
(b) Promise - I will try to leave smoking.
(c) Threat - We will beat you if you do not support us.
(d) Determination - We will fight against corruption.
no image
Using a computer everyday can have more negative than positive effects on children. Do you agree or disagree?

In today's world, computers are very useful and essential in day to day life. Children are encouraged by the computer right from the beginning. For overall development, it has become a necessity to participate in various activities for every child where computers assist children accomplishing these activities. Therefore I completely disagree with the view that Kids using computers in everyday life have more negative impacts on them, rather their use acquaint younger generation with upcoming advancements. Several aspects of using computers in daily life of children are outlined below.

The personal life of children seems to be more self depend using computers and internet to connect them to the world. Banking, shopping, travelling and relationship are easy to manage with the help of computers and internet. The dominance of computer in today's age can be marked by its presence on various levels such as desktop, laptops, tablets, smartphones etcetera.

It would completely be unfair limiting computers benefited for personal life only however the academic standard has vitally altered with the induction of technology into education. Reading and learning has become way too easy along with teaching where many options of online classes have changed the course of study. For scholars, reading and publishing their findings has become facile unlike earlier times.

The professional life has also changed to a great extent. LinkedIn and other networks have made the world global community to experience more opportunities around the world. The doors to everything open with the learning of computer education at early stage of life.

In addition, I would like to make a disclaimer that use of computers for kids ruins their future regardless the advantages supersede. Furthermore use of computer in childhood equips one with all the necessities required to handle the complexities in everyday situations.

no image
Definition : Those words which show an action or existence of some work are called Verbs. These words are used for saying something about some person, place or thing.
परिभाषा : ऐसे शब्द जिनसे किसी कार्य का करना या होना पाया जाये क्रिया कहलाते हैं | ये शब्द किसी व्यक्ति, वस्तु या स्थान के बारे में कुछ कहते हैं |

There are mainly four types of verb. Underline words are verbs. 
1. Transitive Verb (सकर्मक क्रिया) : Transitive Verb is an action verb which has a direct object.
Examples : 
(a) She wrote a letter.  (Transitive Verb - wrote, Direct object - letter)
(b) She loves birds.  (Transitive Verb - loves, Direct object - birds)
(c) He left the book on the table.  (Transitive Verb - left, Direct object - book)

2. Intransitive Verb (अकर्मक क्रिया) : Intransitive Verb is an action verb which has no direct object.
Examples : 
(a) The sun shines brightly. (Intransitive Verb - shines)
(b) The girl is crying. (Intransitive Verb - is crying)
(c) The bus arrives at 1 o'clock. (Intransitive Verb - arrives)

3. Linking Verb (संयोजक क्रिया) : Linking Verb is a connecting or relationship verb of a subject and its predicate. 
Some common linking verbs are : is, are, am, was, were, has, have, had, will, is being, had been, appear, become, feel, grow, seem, keep, look, stay, sound, taste, smell, turn, get, remain etc.
Examples : 
(a) My father was a player. (Linking verb - was)
(b) She is beautiful.(Linking verb - is)
(c) Baby elephant looks cute. (Linking verb - looks)

4. Auxiliary Verb (सहायक क्रिया) : Auxiliary Verb is also known as Helping Verb. It is used to write sentences in different tenses, passive voice, moods, negative and interrogative sentences.
Common Auxiliary verbs are :
(i) be : is, are, am, was, were, are not etc.
(ii) do : do, does, did, did not etc.
(iii) have : has, have, had, had not etc.
Examples : 
(a) She has helped me. (Present perfect tense, Auxiliary verb - has)
(b) I have been helped by her. (Passive voice, Auxiliary verb - have been)
(c) Does he play cricket ? (Interrogative sentence, Auxiliary verb - does)
no image
Rule 1. जब Adjective शब्द Noun से पहले आता है तो इसको Attributive use of Adjective कहते है |
Example : She is a beautiful girl. (beautiful is Adjective and girl is Noun)

जब Noun शब्द Verb से पहले और Adjective शब्द Verb के बाद आता है तो इसको Predicative use of Adjective कहते है |
Example : The girl is beautiful.

Rule 2. जब कोई Adjective, title की तरह प्रयोग किया जाये तो उसे Noun के बाद रखते है |
Example : Kalidas the greatest poet of India wrote many poems.

Rule 3. Phrases में Adjective को उसके Noun के बाद  रखते हैं |
Examples : God the Almighty, Heir apparent, Time immemorial आदि |

Rule 4. Inferior, prior, junior, senior, superior आदि शब्द जिन्हें Comparative degree में ही प्रयोग करते हैं इनके बाद than के स्थान पर to का प्रयोग करते हैं |
Example : She is senior to me.

Rule 5. exterior, former, latter, inner, interior, major, minor, outer, upper आदि Adjectives, Positive degree की तरह प्रयोग होते हैं |
Example : She has received a minor injury.

Rule 6. chief, complete, eternal, entire, extreme, empty, ideal, perfect, round, square, universal, unique आदि Adjectives की Comparative और Superlative degree नहीं बनती हैं |
Example :
Incorrect : She is a most perfect girl.
Correct : She is a perfect girl.

Rule 7. दो व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं की तुलना के लिए Comparative degree और इससे अधिक के लिए Superlative degree का प्रयोग करते हैं |
Examples  :
(a) She is the wiser than him. (Wiser - Comparative degree)
(b) She is the wisest of all. (Wisest - Superlative degree)

Rule 8. जब एक ही व्यक्ति या वस्तु के दो गुणों की तुलना की जाये तो Comparative degree का प्रयोग न करके Positive degree के Adjective से पहले more का प्रयोग करते हैं |
Example : Geeta is more brave than wise.

Rule 9. Prefer तथा Preferable में तुलना के लिए इनसे पहले more नहीं लगाना चाहिए और इनके साथ than के स्थान पर to का प्रयोग करना चाहिए |
Example : 
(a) She prefers mangoes to grapes.
(b) Milk is preferable to tea. 

Rule 10. जब दो Adjectives एक ही Noun से सम्बन्ध रखते हो तो दोनों एक ही तरह की degree में आयेगे |
Example : This is the best and the cheapest laptop in the market. (best, cheapest - superlative degrees)

Rule 11. तुलना केवल एक ही तरह के व्यक्ति या वस्तु में की जानी चाहिए |
एकवचन के लिए that of  तथा बहुवचन के लिए those of का प्रयोग करते है |
Example : 
(a) My house is bigger than that of my uncle.
(b) The streets of New York are wider than those of Delhi.

Rule 12. Double comparatives तथा Double superlatives का प्रयोग नहीं करना चाहिए |
Examples :
Incorrect : She is more cleverer than her cousin.
Correct :  She is cleverer than her cousin.

Rule 13. Few, many, several आदि Adjectives of Number हैं | इनका प्रयोग Adjectives of Quantity की तरह नहीं करना चाहिए |
Example :
Incorrect : This boy has taken many milk.
Correct : This boy has taken much milk.

Rule 14. Some, all, most, no, any आदि Adjectives, Adjectives of Number तथा Adjectives of Quantity दोनों में प्रयोग किये जाते हैं |
Example : 
(a) Adjective of Number : She has purchased some clothes.
(b) Adjective of Quantity : Bring me some milk in the cup.

Rule 15. Adjectives of number 'Few', 'a few' and 'the few' का प्रयोग countable noun के साथ होता है | 
(a) Few का अर्थ है नहीं के बराबर |
Example : She has few friends in the school.

(b) A few का अर्थ है कुछ |
Example : She wants a few magazines. 

(c) The few का अर्थ है कुछ थोड़ा |
Example : The few words that she spoke were beautiful.

Rule 16. Less और fewer का प्रयोग :
Less का प्रयोग Quantity बताने के लिए तथा fewer का प्रयोग Number बताने के लिए करते है | 
(a) Incorrect : No less than fifty people attended the party.
Correct : No fewer than fifty people attended the party.
(b) Incorrect : There is fewer tea in this cup than that.
Correct : There is less tea in this cup than that.

Rule 17. यदि both, Adjective की तरह प्रयोग हो तो उसके बाद the प्रयोग करते है | 
Example : Your brother came here on both the days.

Rule 18. Adjectives of quantity, 'little', 'a little' and 'the little' का प्रयोग uncountable noun के साथ होता है | 
(a) Little का अर्थ है नहीं के बराबर |
Example : There is little milk in the bottle.

(b) A little का अर्थ है कुछ |
Example : A little knowledge is dangerous.

(c) The little का अर्थ है कुछ थोड़ा, लेकिन सब |
Example : Do not waste the little water you have.

Rule 19. Farther, further, nearest, next का प्रयोग :
Farther और nearest का प्रयोग distance(दूरी) दिखाने में होता है | 
Example : 
(a) Delhi is farther from Mumbai than Lucknow.
(b) The nearest hospital is two km from here.

Further का ओर आगे के लिए :
Example : She does not need any further help.

Next का position दिखाने के लिए :
Example : My flat is in the next building.

Rule 20. Elder, eldest, older, oldest का प्रयोग :
Elder तथा eldest का प्रयोग एक ही परिवार के लोगों को दर्शाने के लिए होता है | 
Examples : 
(a) My elder brother is an Engineer.
(b) Radha is my eldest sister. (eldest means बहिनों-भाईओ में सबसे बड़ी )

Older तथा oldest का प्रयोग व्यक्ति तथा वस्तु दोनों के लिए करते है | 
Examples :
(a) Vivek is older than his friend.
(b) Delhi is the oldest city of India.

Rule 21. The two first का प्रयोग न करके इसके स्थान पर The first two का प्रयोग करना चाहिए | 
Example :
Incorrect: The first two chapters of this book are very interesting.
Correct: The first two chapters of this book are very interesting.

Rule 22. Later और latest का प्रयोग Time(समय) के लिए , latter और last का Position(स्थिति) या Order(क्रम) बताने के लिए करते है | 
Example :
(a) This girl entered the room later than Seema.
(b) What is the latest news ?
(c) The latter songs of this list are not very good.
(d) After last night, I decided to stay away from her.

दो व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं के बारे में बात करते समय पहले के लिए former तथा दूसरे के लिए latter का प्रयोग करते है | 
Example :
Tulsidas and Surdas were great poets but the former was greater than the latter.
no image
Definition : A word which describes the speciality of Noun or Pronoun is called Adjective. 
परिभाषा : जो शब्द किसी संज्ञा या सर्वनाम की विशेषता बताता है, विशेषण कहलाता है | 

1. Qualitative Adjective (गुणवाचक विशेषण) :
A Qualitative Adjective shows the kind or quality of a person or thing.
Examples : good, honest, large, foolish, happy, sad etc.
(a) He is an honest man.
(b) Delhi is a large city.

2. Quantitative Adjective (परिमाणवाचक विशेषण) :
A Quantitative Adjective shows the quantity(how much) of a things.
(i) Definite Quantitative Adjective (निश्चित परिमाणवाचक विशेषण) :
Examples : two kg, three meters, one dozen, two litres etc.
(ii) Indefinite Quantitative Adjective (अनिश्चित परिमाणवाचक विशेषण) :
Examples : some, much, little, any etc.
(a) He has little intelligence.
(b) I ate some rice.
(c) Please bring two litres milk.

3. Numeral Adjective (संख्यावाचक विशेषण) :
A Numeral Adjective shows numbers(how many) of persons or things.
(i) Definite Numeral Adjective (निश्चित संख्यावाचक विशेषण) :
Examples : (Cardinals denote how many) one, two, three
(Ordinals denote order of things) first, second, third
(ii) Indefinite Numeral Adjective (अनिश्चित संख्यावाचक विशेषण) :
Examples : all, many, few, some, any, several, enough etc.
(a) I have three apples.
(b) Some girls are clever.
(c) There are not enough spoons.

4. Demonstrative Adjective (सार्वनामिक विशेषण) :
A Demonstrative Adjective points out specific person or thing.
Examples : (Used with singular nouns) This, That, 
(Used with plural nouns) These, Those
(a) This bag is empty.
(b) That girl is beautiful.
(c) These grapes are sour.
(d) Those boys are playing football.

5. Interrogative Adjective (प्रश्नवाचक विशेषण) :
An Interrogative Adjective is used with nouns to ask questions. 
Examples : What, Which, Whose
(a) What time is it ?
(b) Which book shall we read first ?
(c) Whose laptop is this ?

6. Emphasizing Adjective (जोर डालने वाले विशेषण) :
The words 'own' and 'very' are used as Emphasizing Adjectives.
Examples :
(a) Mind your own business.
(b) This is the very book they want.

7. Exclamatory Adjective (विस्मयबोधक विशेषण) :
The word 'what' is sometimes used as an Exclamatory Adjective.
Examples :
(a) What an idea !
(b) What a handsome boy he is !
no image
Father's Father (paternal grandfather) — दादा (dada)
Father's Mother (paternal grandmother) — दादी (dadi)
Mother's Father (maternal grandfather) — नाना (nana)
Mother's Mother (maternal grandmother) — नानी (nani)

Spouses and parents-in-law
Husband — पति (pati)
Wife — पत्नी (patni)
Husband's Mother (Mother-in-law) — सास (saas)
Husband's Father (Father-in-law) — ससुर (sasur)
Fiancé or Fiancée —-मंगेतर (mangetar)

Siblings and siblings-in-law
Brother — भाई (bhai)
Brother's Wife — भाभी (bhabhi)
Elder Brother — भइया (bhaiya)
Step Brother – सौतेला भाई (sotela bhai)
Step Father – सौतेला पिता (sotela pita)
Step Mother – सौतेली माँ (soteli maa)
Step Sister – सौतेली बहन (soteli bahan)
Adopted Daughter – गोद ली हुई बेटी (god li hui beti)
Adopted Son – गोद लिया पुत्र (god liya hua putra)
Younger Brother — छोटा भाई (chotaa bhaai)
Husband's sister - ननद (nanad)
Sister — बहिन (bahin) or बहन (bahan)
Sister's husband (Brother-in-law) — जीजा (jiijaa) or बहनोई (bahanoii)
Elder Sister — दीदी (didi) or जीजी (jiijii)
Younger Sister — छोटी बहन (choti bahan)
Husband's elder brother — जेठ (jeth)
Husband's younger brother — देवर (devar)
Elder brother's wife — भाभी (bhabhi) or भौजी (bhauji) or भौजाई (bhaujaai)
Younger brother's wife — बहू (bahu) or भयो (bhayo)
Wife's Sister ( sister in law ) — साली (saali)
Wife's Brother ( brother in law ) — साला (sala)
Husband's Sister's Husband — नन्दोई (nandoi)
Wife's sister's husband — साडू (sadu)
Husband's elder brother's wife — जेठानी (jethani)
Husband's younger brother's wife — देवरानी (devrani)

Children and children-in-law
Son — बेटा (beta) or पुत्र (putra)
Son's wife (daughter-in-law) — बहू (bahu)
Daughter — बेटी (beti) or पुत्री (putri)
Daughter's husband (son-in-law) — दामाद (damad) or जमाई (jamai)

Grandson (son's son) — पोता (pota)
Granddaughter (son's daughter) — पोती (poti)
Grandson (daughter's son) — नाती (nati) or नवासा (navasa)
Granddaughter (daughter's daughter) — नातिन (natin) or नवासी (navasi)

Aunts and uncles
Father's younger brother (uncle) — चाचा (chacha)
Father's younger brother's wife (aunt) — चाची (chachi)
Father's elder brother's (Uncle) — ताऊ (taau)
Father's elder brother's wife (Aunt) — ताई (taai)
Father's sister (aunt) — बुआ (bua) or फूफी (phuphi)
Father's sister's husband  — फूफा (phupha)
Mother's brother ( maternal uncle )— मामा (mama)
Mother's brother's wife ( maternal aunty)— मामी (mami)
Mother's sister ( maternal mother )— मौसी (mausi)
Mother's sister's husband ( maternal father )— मौसा (mausa)

Nephews and nieces
Brother's son (nephew) — भतीजा (bhatija)
Sister's son (nephew) — भान्जा (bhanja)
Brother's daughter (niece) — भतीजी (bhatiji)
Sister's daughter (niece) — भान्जी (bhanji)
no image
Rule 1. किसी भी Pronoun का person, number तथा gender अपने से पहले वाले noun के अनुसार आता है |
Examples :
(a) All the students must do their studies.
(b) Every daughter should obey her parents.

Rule 2. जब दो Singular Nouns 'and' से जुड़े हो और उनसे पहले each या every आया हो, तो उसके बाद Verb और Pronoun Singular होगा |
Examples :
(a) Every girl and every teacher was busy in her work.
(b) Each table and each chair was in its place.

Rule 3. जब दो या दो से अधिक Singular Nouns को either or, neither nor, or से जोड़े, तो Pronoun Singular होगा |
Examples :
(a) Either Monika or Richa has purchased her car.
(b) Neither Ramesh nor Suresh has done his work.
(c) Suman or Komal was shopping for her brother marriage.

Rule 4. यदि एक Singular Subject और एक Plural Subject either or, neither nor, or से जुड़े हो, तो Plural Subject को बाद में लगाते है और Pronoun अपने पास वाले Noun के अनुसार आता है |
Example :
(a) Either Sita or her friends forget their mobiles.

Rule 5. दो या तीनों Persons का प्रयोग एक ही वाक्य में होने पर, सबसे पहले Second Person फिर Third Person और अन्त में First Person को लगाते है |
Examples :
(a)  You, he and I are best friends.
(b) You and I can do this work.

Rule 6. यदि किसी वाक्य में 'to be' Verb(is, are, am, was, were etc.) का complement कोई Pronoun हो, तो वह हमेशा Nominative Case होगा |
Example :
Incorrect : It is me who can help you.
Correct : It is I who can help you.

Rule 7. Each other दो लोगों के लिए और one another दो से अधिक लोगों के लिए प्रयोग होता है |
Example :
(a) Ranbir and Deepika love each other.
(b) These children love one another.

Rule 8. यदि Relative Pronoun verb का Subject हो, तो verb Relative Pronoun के antecedent के number और person के अनुसार प्रयोग होती है |
Example :
Incorrect : It is I who is your friend.
Correct : It is I who am your friend.

Rule 9. Relative Pronoun 'who' का प्रयोग generally व्यक्तियों को लिए किया जाता है |
Example :
(a) The girl, who is setting in the corner, is my best friend.

Rule 10. Whom (जिसे, जिसको, जिनको, जिन्हें) का प्रयोग व्यक्तियों के लिए तथा whose (जिनका, जिसका) का प्रयोग व्यक्तियों के साथ-साथ निर्जीव वस्तुओं के लिए भी होता है |
Examples :
(a) This is the boy whom I love.
(b) I know the girl whose brother was murdered.
(c) The computer, whose CPU is not working, is useless.

Rule 11. Which का प्रयोग वस्तुओं तथा जानवरों के लिए करते है | 
Examples :
(a) I have lost the bag which I purchased yesterday.
(b) The horse which I bought has won the race.

Rule 12. That का प्रयोग व्यक्तियों तथा वस्तुओं के लिए करते है | 
Examples :
(a) She behaved in such a manner that I had not hoped.
(b) The plane that landed an hour ago came from Bangkok.

Rule 13. यदि Antecedent से पहले same या such का प्रयोग हो, तो उसके बाद generally Relative Pronoun 'as' लगाते है | 
Example :
Incorrect : This is the same shirt which I gave you.
Correct : This is the same shirt as I gave you.

Rule 14. Relative Pronoun को जितना हो सके अपने Antecedent के पास रखना चाहिए | 
Example :
Incorrect : I have read Shelley's poems, who was a romantic poet.
Correct : I have read poems of Shelley who was a romantic poet.

Rule 15. Reflexive Pronoun कभी भी अकेला किसी Verb का Subject नहीं बन सकता उससे पहले कोई Noun या Pronoun अवश्य आएगा | 
Example :
Incorrect : Myself did this work.
Correct : I myself did this work.

Rule 16. Avail, absent, apply, avenge, betake, drink, enjoy, oversleep, pride, resign आदि Transitive Verbs के साथ Reflexive Pronoun का प्रयोग होता है | 
Example :
(a) The girls absented themselves from the class.
(b) We enjoyed ourselves in the picnic.

Rule 17. दो व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं के लिए either और neither तथा दो से अधिक व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं के लिए any, none का प्रयोग करना चाहिए | 
Examples :
(a) Neither of these two children has stolen your pencil.
(b) None of the sportsmen of our school could get a medal in swimming. 

Rule 18. यदि वाक्य में Indefinite Pronoun 'One' का प्रयोग हुआ है तो अन्त तक Pronoun के स्थान पर one का ही प्रयोग होगा | 
Example :
Incorrect : One should do his duty.
Correct :  One should do one's duty.