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Rule 1. कुछ Nouns के एकवचन (Singular) और बहुवचन (Plural) में सामान रूप रहते हैं ।
Examples : swine, deer, sheep etc. Click here to see more examples
(a) The sheep is grazing. (यहाँ एक भेड़ है)
(b) Many sheep are grazing in the park. (यहाँ कई सारी भेड़ें हैं)

Rule 2. यदि hundred, thousand, dozen से पहले संख्या (number) होती है, तो 's' नहीं लगाते है ।
Examples :
(a) I bought four dozen bananas.
(b) My mother gave me two hundred dollars.

यदि इससे पहले संख्या (number) नहीं होती है, तो Plural बनाने के लिए 's' लगाते है तथा 'of ' का प्रयोग करते है ।
Examples :
(a) Hundreds of monkeys gathered there.
(b) Thousands of euros were spent.

Rule 3. कुछ Nouns देखने में Singular लगते हैं परन्तु meaning में Plural होते हैं ।
Examples : police, military, public etc. Click here to see more examples
(a) The police have arrested the thief.
(b) The people of Singapore are rich.

Rule 4. कुछ Nouns केवल Singular में प्रयोग होते हैं उनका Plural नहीं होता हैं ।
Examples : hair, bread, alphabet, mischief, poetry etc. Click here to see more examples
(a) The old furniture was disposed of.
(b) Her information was wrong.
उपर्युक्त शब्दों का Plural कुछ इस तरह बनाते हैं : articles of furniture, loves of bread, pieces of information etc.

Rule 5. यदि Collective Noun से समूह का बोध हो, तो Singular Verb का प्रयोग करते है और यदि अलग-अलग लोगों का बोध हो, तो Plural Verb का प्रयोग करते है ।
Examples :  Jury, Government, Committee etc.
(a) The committee was one on this point.
(b) The committee were divided on one point.

Rule 6. कुछ Nouns देखने में Plural लगते हैं परन्तु meaning में Singular होते हैं ।
Examples : Physics, news, Mathematics etc. Click here to see more examples
(a) Physics is an interesting subject.
(b) The news of his failure is not true.

Rule 7. कुछ Nouns केवल Plural में प्रयोग होते हैं ।
Examples : tongs, alms, trousers, thanks, scissors etc. Click here to see more examples
(a) Alms are given to the beggars.
(b) Her scissors were very blunt.

Rule 8. कुछ Nouns में बीमारियो के नाम जैसे - measles, mumps, rabies तथा खेलों के नाम जैसे - cards, darts, billiards, draughts, gymnastics, athletics etc. का प्रयोग Singular में ही होता हैं ।
Examples :
(a) Billiards is easier than snooker.
(b) Mumps is an infectious disease.

Rule 9. Abstract और Material Nouns का Plural नहीं बनता, ये Singular form में ही प्रयोग होते हैं ।
Examples : kindness, tin, copper, iron, wheat, milk, water, silver, gold etc.
(a) Wheat is grown in India in larger quantity.
(b) This house is made of brick and stone.

Rule 10. News papers, some countries और books के नाम देखने में Plural लगते हैं लेकिन meaning में Singular होते हैं ।
Examples :
(a) The New York Times has won more prizes than any other news organization.
(b) The United States of America has made great progress in science.
(c) Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone is a famous novel.

Rule 11. Means, Wages, Pains etc Nouns प्रयोग के अनुसार Singular या Plural होते हैं । 
Examples :
(a) Her wages are five hundred rupees per day.
(b) The wages of sin is more than death.

Rule 12. Word का Singular तथा Plural में प्रयोग :
Examples :
Singular : ('प्रतिज्ञा' या 'वचन' के अर्थ में )
She did not keep her word.
Plural : ('शब्द' के अर्थ में)
There are three words in this sentence.

Rule 13. Brother, cloth, fish का Plural में दो अलग-अलग अर्थ में प्रयोग :
Examples :
Brother :
(a) All brothers are living in peace. (brothers -  एक ही माता-पिता के पुत्र)
(b) We are all brethren. (brethren - एक ही समाज के सदस्य)

(a) There are various cloths in the shop. (Cloths - बिना सिले कपड़े या थान)
(b) We wear warm clothes in the winter. (Clothes - सिले हुए कपड़े या पोशाके)

(a) I had fish in the lunch. (Fish - एक समूह में )
(b) There were five fishes in the pond. (Fishes - अलग-अलग रूप में)

Rule 14. कोई Noun किसी Compound word में Adjective का काम करें तो वह हमेशा Singular में प्रयोग होगी । 
Examples : A four-year old child, A three-mile walk, A hundred-rupee note etc.
(a) My father gave me a hundred-rupee note.
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A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing.
किसी व्यक्ति, स्थान या वस्तु का बोध कराने वाले नाम को संज्ञा कहते है ।

There are mainly five types of Noun:
संज्ञा के मुख्यता पाँच प्रकार होते हैं :

1. Common Noun (जातिवाचक संज्ञा) :
A Common Noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind.
Examples: king, book, girl, boy, table, chair etc.
(a) Ravi is a foolish man.
(b) Sheela is a beautiful girl.

2. Proper Noun (व्यक्तिवाचक संज्ञा) :
A Proper Noun is the name of some particular person, place or thing.
Examples: Agra, The New York Times, Sita, Google etc.
(a) Google is a very popular search engine.
(b) Agra is one of the famous cities of India known for tourism.

3. Collective Noun (समूहवाचक/समुदायवाचक  संज्ञा) :
A Collective Noun is the name of a number of persons or things taken together and spoken as one whole.
Examples: committee, government, police, class, assembly, family etc.
(a) The committee was one on this point.
(b) Please pay my regards to your family.

4. Abstract Noun (भाववाचक संज्ञा) :
An Abstract Noun is the name of quality, action or state considered apart from the object to which it belongs.
Quality - honesty, wisdom, bravery
Action - laughter, theft, judgement
State - childhood, youth, sleep, death
(a) The soldiers were rewarded for their bravery.
(b) We all love honesty.

5. Material Noun (द्रव्यवाचक संज्ञा) :
A Material is the name of material or substance which are used to made things.
Examples: silver, gold, iron, cotton, diamond, plastic etc.
(a) Gold is an expensive metal.
(b) Plastic is used to make containers of different shape.
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List of Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives
Good, WellBetterBest
MuchMoreMost(for Quantity)
ManyMoreMost(for Number)
LateLater, LatterLatest, Last
OldOlder, elderOldest, eldest
BeautifulMore BeautifulMost Beautiful
DifficultMore DifficultMost Difficult
IntelligentMore IntelligentMost Intelligent

List of Degrees of Comparison of Adverbs
CleverlyMore CleverlyMost Cleverly
SlowlyMore SlowlyMost Slowly

Also Read Interchange of Degrees of Comparison
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Following are the rules with examples of making Plurals of Singular Nouns:

Rule 1. Most of the nouns use ‘s’ to make plurals.

Rule 2. Noun which ends with s, x, z, ch or sh. Add ‘es’ to make plural.

(Exceptional Cases: Axis –Axes, Ox – Oxen)

Rule 3. Noun which ends with vowel and ‘y’. Add ‘s’ to make plural.

Rule 4. Noun which ends with consonant and ‘y’. Replace ‘y’ with ‘ies’ to make plural.

Rule 5. Some Nouns which end with ‘o’, use ‘es’ to make plural.

Some Nouns which end with ‘o’, use ‘s’ to make plural.

Rule 6. Some Nouns which end with ‘f’ or ‘fe’. Replace ‘f’ or ‘fe’ with ‘ves’ to make plural.

Nouns which end with ‘f’ or ‘fe’. Replace ‘f’ or ‘fe’ with ‘s’ to make plural.

Rule 7. Some Irregular Nouns:

Rule 8. Nouns whose Singular and Plural form remains same.
FishFish (Collectively), Fishes (taken separately)
(Collectively) The sea abounds in fish.
(Taken separately) There are twenty fishes in the basket.


(a) The scenery of Switzerland is beautiful.
(b) His hair has turned grey.
(c) He bought new machinery.

Rule 9. Some Nouns look Singular but are Plural.
People, Cattle, Poultry, Vermin, Gentry, Police, Military, Public etc.
(a) Cattle are grazing in the field.
(b) The police have arrested the thief.

Rule 10. Some Nouns look plural but are used as singular.
Civics, Economics, Physics, news, Mechanics, Mathematics, innings etc.
Physics is a difficult subject.

Rule 11. Some Nouns which are only used as Plurals.
thanks, riches, alms, tongs, spectacles, scissors, trousers, spirits, scissors, trousers etc.
Her spectacles are very beautiful.

Rule 12. Compound Nouns:
Daughter-in-law Daughters-in-law
Post office Post offices
"A day without laughter is a day wasted."

"A man's true character comes out when he's drunk."

"All I need to make a comedy is a park, a policeman and a pretty girl."

"Failure is unimportant. It takes courage to make a fool of yourself."

"I am an individual and a believer in liberty. That is all the politics I have."

"I am at peace with God; my conflict is with man."

"I am for people. I can't help it."

"I am not religious in the dogmatic sense… I neither believe nor disbelieve in anything."

"I am what I am: an individual, unique and different, with a lineal history of an ancestral promptings and urgings, a history of dreams, desires, and of special experiences, of all of which I am the sum total."

"I believe that faith is a precursor of all our ideas."

"I remain just one thing, and one thing only, and that is a clown. It places me on a far higher plane than any politician."

"In the end, everything is a gag."

"Life is a tragedy when seen in close-up, but a comedy in long-shot."

"Look up to the sky, You'll never find rainbows, If you’re looking down."

"My prodigious sin was, and still is, being a non-conformist."

"Nothing is permanent in this wicked world - not even our troubles."

"The saddest thing I can imagine is to get used to luxury."

Wars, conflict, it's all business. "One murder makes a villain. Millions a hero". Numbers sanctify.

"We think too much and feel too little."

Also Read Quotations / Quotes by famous personalities
"Alas, regardless of their doom, The little victims play! No sense have they of ills to come, Nor care beyond today."

"And weep the more, because I weep in vain."

"Full many a gem of purest ray serene, The dark unfathom’d caves of ocean bear: Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, And waste its sweetness on the desert air."

"Poetry is thoughts that breathe, and words that burn."

"The applause of list'ning senates to command, The threats of pain and ruin to despise, To scatter plenty o'er a smiling land, And read their hist'ry in a nation's eyes."

"The paths of glory lead but to the grave."

"Too poor for a bribe, and too proud to importune, He had not the method of making a fortune."

"Visions of glory, spare my aching sight! Ye unborn ages, crown not on my soul."

"Where ignorance is bliss, 'Tis folly to be wise."

"Youth smiles without any reason. It is one of its chiefest charms."

Also Read Quotations / Quotes by famous personalities
"A people... who are possessed of the spirit of commerce, who see and who will pursue their advantages may achieve almost anything."

"Arbitrary power is most easily established on the ruins of liberty abused to licentiousness."

"Associate with men of good quality if you esteem your own reputation; for it is better to be alone than in bad company."

"Be courteous to all, but intimate with few, and let those few be well tried before you give them your confidence; true friendship is a plant of slow growth, and must undergo and withstand the shocks of adversity before it is entitled to the appellation."

"But lest some unlucky event should happen unfavorable to my reputation, I beg it may be remembered by every gentleman in the room that I this day declare with the utmost sincerity, I do not think myself equal to the command I am honored with."

"Discipline is the soul of an army. It makes small numbers formidable; procures success to the weak, and esteem to all."

"Every post is honorable in which a man can serve his country.

"Example, whether it be good or bad, has a powerful influence."

"Few men have virtue to withstand the highest bidder."

"Friendship is a plant of slow growth and must undergo and withstand the shocks of adversity before it is entitled to the appellation."

"Guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism."

"Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations, are recommended by policy, humanity, and interest."

"Having now finished the work assigned me, I retire from the great theatre of Action; and bidding an Affectionate farewell to this August body under whose orders I have so long acted, I here offer my commission, and take my leave of all the employments of public life."

"Human happiness and moral duty are inseparably connected."

"I had rather be on my farm than be emperor of the world."

"I hold the maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always the best policy."

"I hope I shall possess firmness and virtue enough to maintain what I consider the most enviable of all titles, the character of an honest man."

"If men are to be precluded from offering their sentiments on a matter which may involve the most serious and alarming consequences that can invite the consideration of mankind, reason is of no use to us; the freedom of speech may be taken away, and dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter."

"If the freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter."

"It is better to offer no excuse than a bad one."

"It is infinitely better to have a few good men than many indifferent ones."

"Let us therefore animate and encourage each other, and show the whole world that a Freeman, contending for liberty on his own ground, is superior to any slavish mercenary on earth."

"Liberty, when it begins to take root, is a plant of rapid growth."

"Observe good faith and justice toward all nations. Cultivate peace and harmony with all."

"Parade with me my brave fellows, we will have them soon!"

"The common and continual mischiefs of the spirit of party are sufficient to make it the interest and duty of a wise people to discourage and restrain it."

"The due administration of justice is the firmest pillar of good Government."

"There can be no greater error than to expect or calculate upon real favors from nation to nation."

"To be prepared for war is one of the most effectual means of preserving peace."

"When we assumed the Soldier, we did not lay aside the Citizen."

"Without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive. And with it, everything honorable and glorious."

Also Read Quotations / Quotes by famous personalities
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Some people think that modern technology has more negative effects on our lives than positive ones. Do you agree or disagree? Give your opinion.

The innovation and latest technological advancements is a topic of great controversy these days.No doubt, the advancement of technology has made our lives lot easier but the cost we are paying is lot more then we can think of or we see around us today. The adverse impact of technology can be seen easily on our health.

In recent years, the development in technology has changed the world to a great extent. The infrastructure, standard of education, transport system, health system etc all are affected by technology. Each and every task today is being performed with the help of machines for an instance we rely on machines for simple jobs like easy calculations to complicated jobs seeking multi tasking at tye same time. And this over dependent nature over the machines slowly degrading our skills rather.

Another great impact of technology over the humans would be the growing distance among each other. There are various reasons for weakening our relationships with our dear ones, with those who need us most and the root cause is technology again for an example kids today have very little time for their family and friends because they are busy with their virtual friends over social networking sites like facebook, snapchat or instagram. And this is leading to very serious consequences.

However, certainly technology has helped us to grow and achieve too much in short span of time in the area of health, science, education, communication etc. But the adverse effects of technology overweigh the benefits if we look at it in a broad way.

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Ways of expressing a Concession or Contrast (Concession या Contrast प्रकट करने के तरीके)
Rule 1. By using Conjunction 'though' or 'although' : 
नियम 1. Conjunction 'though' या 'although' का प्रयोग करके :
Examples :
(a) Though she is poor, she is honest.
(b) Although she is tried, yet she will work.

Rule 2. By using Conjunction 'even if' :
नियम 2. Conjunction 'even if' का प्रयोग करके :
Example :
(a) Even if he is poor, he is a man of character.

Rule 3. By using Conjunction 'if' :
नियम 3. Conjunction 'if' का प्रयोग करके :
Example :
(a) If you eat too much, you will fall ill.

Rule 4. By using Adverb 'indeed' before 'but' :
नियम 4. Adverb 'indeed' का प्रयोग 'but' से पहले करके :
Example :
(a) He was sincere indeed, but he was foolish.

Rule 5. By using phrase 'nevertheless' or 'nonetheless' :
नियम 5. Phrase 'nevertheless' या 'nonetheless' का प्रयोग करके :
Example :
(a) Kavita did not blame herself for the loss, nevertheless or nonetheless she was disappointed.

Rule 6. By using Conjunction 'as' :
नियम 6. Conjunction 'as' का प्रयोग करके :
Examples :
(a) Strong as he is, he is timid.
(b) Poor as he is, he is honest.

Rule 7. By using Preposition 'notwithstanding' before Noun clause :
नियम 7. Preposition 'notwithstanding' का प्रयोग करके जबकि उसके बाद Noun clause आये :
Example :
(a) He is timid, notwithstanding that he is strong.

Rule 8. By using Admitting :
नियम 8. Admitting का प्रयोग करके :
Example :
(a) Admitting that he is strong, he is timid.

Rule 9. By using Relative Pronoun 'whatever' :
नियम 9. Relative Pronoun 'whatever' का प्रयोग करके :
Example :
(a) Whatever she may do, she cannot stand first.

Rule 10. By using Relative Adverb 'however' before Adjective or Adverb :
नियम 10. Relative Adverb 'however' का प्रयोग करके जबकि उसके बाद Adjective या Adverb आये :
Example :
(a) However poor she is, she is honest.

Rule 11. By using phrase 'all the same' :
नियम 11. Phrase 'all the same' का प्रयोग करके :
Examples :
(a) He is strong, all the same he is timid.
(b) She is poor, all the same she is honest.

Rule 12. By using 'at the same time' :
नियम 12. Phrase 'at the same time' का प्रयोग करके :
Examples :
(a) She is beautiful at the same time she is not proud.
(b) He is poor at the same time he is honest.

Rule 13. By using phrase 'for all that' :
नियम 13. Phrase 'for all that' का प्रयोग करके :
Example :
(a) She will not trust you for all that you may say in your defence.

Transformation of Sentences in Hindi and English