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Below is the list of Second, Third and 'ing' form of Strong Verbs which are formed by changing the vowel of First Form.

Present or First FormMeaningPast or Second FormPast Participle
or Third Form
'ing' Form
AwakeजागनाAwokeAwokeAwaking
AbideरहनाAbodeAbodeAbiding
BecomeबननाBecameBecomeBecoming
Beginशुरू करनाBeganBegunBeginning
BindबाँधनाBoundBoundBinding
BeholdनिहारनाBeheldBeheldBeholding
ComeआइएCameComeComing
DigखोदनाDugDugDigging
DrinkपीनाDrankDrunkDrinking
Fightलड़नाFoughtFoughtFighting
FindपानाFoundFoundFinding
GetपानाGotGotGetting
GrindपीसनाGroundGroundGrinding
Holdपकड़नाHeldHeldHolding
RingबजानाRangRungRinging
RunभागनाRanRunRunning
ShineचमकनाShoneShoneShining
SitबैठनाSatSatSitting
SpinकातनाSpanSpunSpinning
SpringउछालSprangSprungSpringing
Standखड़ा होनाStoodStoodStanding
SinkडूबनाSankSunkSinking
StickचिपकनाStuckStuckSticking
Stingडंक मारनाStungStungStinging
Strikeहड़तालStruckStruckStriking
SwimतैरनाSwamSwumSwimming
Shrinkसिकुड़नाShrankShrunkShrinking
SwingझूलनाSwungSwungSwinging
WinजीतनाWonWonWinning
WindहवाWoundWoundWinding
Wringमरोड़नाWrungWrungWringing

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Rule 1. 'and' और 'but' का प्रयोग दो Statements या दो Coordinating Clauses को जोड़ने के लिए होता है |
'and' समान शब्दों और clauses को एक दूसरे से जोड़ता है परन्तु 'but' उनमें contrast दिखलाता है |
Examples :
(a) Your father came here and met me.
(b) Your father came here but he did not meet me.

Rule 2. Conjunction 'Both' के बाद 'as well as' का प्रयोग न करके 'and' का प्रयोग करते है |
Example :
Incorrect : Both Ram as well as his sister have passed.
Correct : Both Ram and his sister have passed.

Both का प्रयोग Negative sense में नहीं करते है | Negative sentence बनाने के लिए Neither..... nor का प्रयोग करते है |
Example :
Incorrect : Both Ram as well as his sister have not passed.
Correct : Neither Ram nor his sister have passed.

Rule 3. 'and' का प्रयोग दो वस्तुओं को जोड़ने में होता है जबकि 'or' दो वस्तुओं में एक को बतलाता है |

Example :
(a) Do you want to marry Sita or Geeta?
(b) I want a laptop or a desktop.

Rule 4. Either...or, Neither....nor, Both....and, Though......yet, Whether....or, Not only......but also Conjunctions जोड़ों (pairs) में प्रयोग होते हैं |
Examples :
(a) Though Sita is ill, yet she works hard.
(b) I cannot say whether she will come here or not.

Rule 5. No sooner के बाद verb का प्रयोग Interrogative sentence की तरह होता है परन्तु Question mark (?) नहीं लगाते है और उसके बाद than  प्रयोग करते है | No sooner....than (ज्योंही) का प्रयोग केवल Past Tense में करते है |

Example :
Incorrect : No sooner she came here than she shut the door.
Correct : No sooner did she come here than she shut the door.


Rule 6. Scarcely या Hardly के बाद 'when'  का प्रयोग होता है  'then' का नहीं होता है |
Examples :
(a) Incorrect : Scarcely (or Hardly) he had gone then his sister returned from her office.
Correct : Scarcely (or Hardly) had he gone when his sister returned from her office.
(b) Incorrect : Hardly she had gone to bed then a thief broke into her house.
Correct : Hardly had she gone to bed when a thief broke into her house.

Rule 7. Lest (ऐसा न हो कि) के साथ should का प्रयोग होता है और not नहीं लगाते है |

Example :
Incorrect : Work hard lest you may not fail.
Correct : Work hard lest you should fail.

Rule 8. जब Such और Same का प्रयोग Adjective की तरह हो तो उनके बाद who, when  या which नहीं आता हैं बल्कि Conjunction 'as' आता है | 
Example :
Incorrect : He has such a laptop which you cannot find elsewhere.
Correct : He has such a laptop as you cannot find elsewhere.

Rule 9. What, when, how, why आदि प्रश्नवाचक शब्द के पहले 'that' नहीं लगाना चाहिए | 
Example :
Incorrect : I asked her that why she was late. 
Correct : I asked her why she was late.

Rule 10. When और if के बाद 'then' का प्रयोग नहीं होता है | केवल then के स्थान पर Comma(,) लगा देते है | 
Example :
Incorrect : When she came here then I was reading a book.
Correct : When she came here, I was reading a book.

Rule 11. Unless और Until दोनों Negative शब्द हैं इसलिए इनके बाद not, never का प्रयोग नहीं होता है | 
Unless शर्त और Until समय के लिए प्रयोग होते हैं | 
Examples :
(a) Incorrect : Unless you do not work hard, you will fail.
Correct : Unless you work hard, you will fail.
(b) Incorrect : I shall wait here until your father does not come.
Correct : I shall wait here until your father comes.

Rule 12. Define, describe, mention, regards, represent आदि verbs के बाद 'as' का प्रयोग होता है | 
Call, consider, name, think आदि verbs के बाद 'as' का प्रयोग नहीं होता है |
Examples :
Incorrect : You ought to have regarded her your superior.
Correct :  You ought to have regarded her as your superior.

Rule 13. Suppose और if का प्रयोग साथ साथ नहीं होता है | 
Example :
Incorrect : Suppose if the teacher comes, you will be fined.
Correct : Supposing the teacher comes, you will be fined.

Rule 14. As के बाद 'so' का प्रयोग नहीं होता है | केवल so के स्थान पर Comma(,) लगा देते है | 
Example :
Incorrect : As I am not feeling well so I shall not be able to attend the ceremony.
Correct : As I am not feeling well, I shall not be able to attend the ceremony.

Rule 15. Because कारण बताता है इसलिए इसका प्रयोग दो में से बाद वाले उपवाक्य में होता है | 
Example :
(a) He cannot buy a bicycle because he is poor.

Rule 16. Since जब Conjunction की तरह प्रयोग होता है तो Since से पहले वाली clause Present Perfect Tense में और बाद वाली Simple Past Tense में प्रयोग होती है | 
Example :
Incorrect : Two years passed since my friend has died.
Correct : Two years have passed since my friend died.


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Definition : A Conjunction is a word which is used to join words or sentences together.
परिभाषा : Conjunction उस शब्द को कहते है, जो दो words या sentences को जोड़ता है | 

Unlined words are Conjunctions.
Underline किये हुए शब्द Conjunctions हैं | 

There are three kinds of Conjunction :
Conjunction तीन प्रकार के होते है :

1. Coordinating Conjunctions : 
A Conjunction that joins sentences of equal rank or order together is called Coordinating Conjunction.
जो Conjunction, दो स्वतंत्र उपवाक्यों, जो अपने दो अलग-अलग अर्थ रखते हो, को जोड़ता है, Coordinating Conjunction कहलाता है | 

Examples : and, but, or, yet, still, however, so, therefore etc.
(a) The sun set and the night fell.
(b) Work hard or you will fail.
(c) She is poor still people love her.
(d) You are late therefore you cannot catch the train.


2. Subordinating Conjunctions : 
A Conjunction that joins sentences of unequal rank or order together is called Subordinating Conjunction.
जो Conjunction एक दूसरे पर आश्रित रहने वाले उपवाक्यों को जोड़ता है, Subordinating Conjunction कहलाता है | 

Examples : because, so, where, though, if, when, after, before, till, until, wherever, as, since, although, even if, however, unless, that etc.
(a) I like her because she is honest.
(b) I know where you were born.
(c) He is happy though he is very poor.
(d) We know that God is Almighty.

3. Correlative Conjunctions :
Conjunctions which are used in pairs are called Correlative Conjunctions.
जो Conjunctions जोड़ों में प्रयोग किये जाते है, Correlative Conjunctions कहलाते है | 

Examples : either....or, neither....nor, both...and, though....yet, not only.....but also, so....that, hardly.....when, no sooner...than etc.
(a) Either Ramesh or Suresh has taken your laptop.
(b) Both Reena and her sister went to Delhi.
(c) Though she is poor yet she is honest.
(d) No sooner did she see the lion than she ran away.



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Definition : A Preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to show in what relation the person or thing denoted by its stands in regard to something else. -Wren & Martin
परिभाषा : ऐसे शब्द जो संज्ञा या सर्वनाम से पहले लगाये जाते हैं और उनके बीच स्थान की दृष्टि से कुछ सम्बन्ध बतलाते हैं Preposition कहलाते हैं | 

Examples में underline किए हुए शब्द Prepositions हैं |

Rule 1. प्राय: In, At, Into, On, Upon, Within, After, To, With, By, Beside, Besides, Between, Among, From, For, Since, Over, Above, Behind, About, Along, Beyond, Through, Without, of आदि का प्रयोग Preposition की तरह होता है |
Examples :
(a) My sister lives in California.
(b) He jumped into the well.
(c) The glass is on the table.
(d) The cat jumped upon the table.
(e) She will return from London within a week.
(f) Your letter came after a month.
(g) Your son went to school.
(h) He wrote a letter with his pen.
(i) Terrorists were killed by Army.
(j) Your sheep was grazing beside my field. (Beside means 'By the side of' बिल्कुल नज़दीक)
(k) Besides this, I want one other book. (Besides means 'In addition to' अतिरिक्त)


Rule 2. प्राय: Preposition अपने object  पहले आता है |
Examples :
(a) There is a fox in the field.
(b) She is fond of Apples.

लेकिन निम्न दशाओं में यह rule लागू नहीं होता है :

(i) जब किसी Preposition का Object, Relative Pronoun 'that' है तो Preposition हमेशा अन्त में आयेगा |
Examples :
(a) Here is the pen that you asked for.
(b) This is the servant that I was speaking of.

(ii) जब Relative Pronoun छिपा हो तो Preposition वाक्य के अन्त में आता है |
Examples :
(a) This is the book (which) I was talking about.
(b) She found (what) she was looking for.

(iii) Preposition वाक्य के अन्त में आता है जब उसका Object कोई Interrogative Pronoun हो |
(a) Where did she came from ?
(b) Whom were you speaking to ?

Rule 3. Considering, barring, concerning, during, pending, touching, regarding आदि स्वयं Prepositions का काम करते हैं इसलिए इन शब्दों के बाद Prepositions का प्रयोग नहीं होता हैं | 
Example :
Incorrect : Concerning about his work, Vivek is not careless.
Correct : Concerning his work, Vivek is not careless.

Rule 4. एक साथ दो Prepositions का प्रयोग नहीं होता है | 
Example :
Incorrect : In spite of these things she was against of divorce.
Correct : In spite of these things she was against divorce.

Rule 5. Befit, combat, order, obey, pervade, recommend, resemble, sign, violate आदि Transitive Verbs हैं इसलिए इनके बाद किसी भी Preposition का प्रयोग नहीं करते है | 
Example :
Incorrect :  She resembles with her mother.
Correct : She resembles her mother.

Rule 6. निम्नलिखित Phrases का प्रयोग Prepositions की तरह करते है | 
Examples : According to, Because of, By means of, For the sake of, On behalf of, With regard to, On account of, Due to आदि | 
(a) On account of hard work she passed.
(b) Due to his carelessness he suffered miserably.

Rule 7.  निम्नलिखित शब्दों के बाद प्राय: Preposition 'for' का प्रयोग करते है :
Affection, anxiety, ambition, aptitude, appetite, care, compensation, candidate, desire, eager, eligible, fit, good, grateful, guarantee, hope, match, need, opportunity, pity, prepared, proper, qualified, ready, sorry, sufficient, sure, useful, wish, yearn.


Rule 8.  निम्नलिखित शब्दों के बाद प्राय: Preposition 'from' का प्रयोग करते है :
Abstain, debar, deviate, differ, descent, emerge, exclude, prevent, protect, recover

Rule 9.  निम्नलिखित शब्दों के बाद प्राय: Preposition 'in का प्रयोग करते है :
Absorb, accomplish, accurate, correct, delight, defective, fail, honest, interested, versed

Rule 10.  निम्नलिखित शब्दों के बाद प्राय: Preposition 'of' का प्रयोग करते है :
Afraid, assured, assurance, aware, beware, boast, cautious, confident, desirous, devoid, die, dispose, experience, fearful, fond, greedy, guilty, ignorant, irrespective, proof, proud, sick, sure, weary, worthy

Rule 11.  निम्नलिखित शब्दों के बाद प्राय: Preposition 'on' का प्रयोग करते है :
Comment, decide, depend, embark, insist, resolve, subsist

Rule 12.  निम्नलिखित शब्दों के बाद प्राय: Preposition 'to' का प्रयोग करते है :
Access, acceptable, accustomed, addicted, adhere, affectionate, agreeable, apologise, appoint, applicable, appropriate, approach, attend, attention, belong, contrary, due, devoted, equal, exception, indifferent, key, listen, loyal, obliged, opposite, opposition, prefer, prior, reduced, refer, responsible, sacred, subject, true

Rule 13.  निम्नलिखित शब्दों के बाद प्राय: Preposition 'with' का प्रयोग करते है :
Acquaintance, afflicted, busy, comparison, comply, conformity, contented, cope, disagree, dispense, endowed, enmity, fill, gifted, infected, infested, inspired, intercourse, intimacy, invested, meddle, overcome, satisfied, sympathize


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The inclusion of Goods and Services Tax or GST has led the simplification of taxation and business but has impacted the living cost of a layman. The government has shown its support for the businesses; however the amount of tax people will pay has increased in various segments. Nevertheless introduction of GST has brought uniformity in taxes all across the nation.


All the products and services under GST are divided into five segments. The description of tax slab is as follows:

0% Slab covers some of the necessities such as fresh meat, egg, milk and services for instance hotels below 1000 tariff attracts no tax.

5% goods and services such as skimmed milk powder etc falls under this category. Transport services including railways and airways are categorised in 5 % slab.

Items such as cell phones, apparels, packed dry fruits etc, comes in the category of 12% slab; some of the services such as state run lotteries, are slammed with 12% of GST.

There is a long list of article in the slab of 18% covering from softwares, home appliances steel product and services such as liquor, telecom services etc.

28% of tax is the highest tax implied to any goods and services. Some of the items falling in these categories are chocolates, pan masala etc and the services such as private run lotteries and tariff of 5 star hotels.

With the application of new tax system it is easier for the government to control over the turnover and track business activities but again at the cost of common people. It is reasonable to have a common tax system to benefit the public and government.
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Rule 1. Adverb को जितना सम्भव हो सके उस शब्द के पास रखना चाहिए जिसको वह modify करता है, नहीं तो उसका अर्थ बदल जाता है |
Examples : 
Mohan has also decided to visit the Taj Mahal.
Mohan has decided to visit the Taj Mahal also.

Rule 2.  जब कोई Adverb किसी Intransitive Verb (अकर्मक क्रिया) को modify करता है तो वह ठीक उसके बाद प्रयोग किया जाता है |
Examples :
(a) She lives peacefully.
(b) Her mother lives there.


Rule 3. जब कोई Transitive Verb (सकर्मक क्रिया) अपने object के साथ आता है तो Adverb, object के बाद प्रयोग करते है |
Example : She did her task carefully.

Rule 4. जब किसी वाक्य में Auxiliary verb (सहायक क्रिया) और Principal verb (मुख्य क्रिया) दोनों आते हो तो Adverb दोनों के बीच में आता है |
Example : 
(a) She will surely get good marks.
(b) I have certainly helped her.

Rule 5. always, ever, frequently, never, often, seldom, sometimes आदि Adverbs of time उन verbs से पहले प्रयोग होते हैं जिनको वो modify करते हैं | (See examples a and b)
यदि वाक्य में verb to be (is, are, am, was, were) का प्रयोग हो तो Adverbs of time उसके बाद प्रयोग करते हैं | (See examples c and d)
Examples :
(a) She always speaks the truth.
(b) He often comes to school late.
(c) She is never late.
(d) I am always happy.


Rule 6. जब कोई Adverb किसी Adjective या दूसरे Adverb को modify करता हैं तो वह Adverb उनके ठीक पहले प्रयोग होता है | 
Example : The man was quite rich.

Rule 7. Adverb 'enough' हमेशा उस Adjective या Adverb के बाद प्रयोग होता है जिसको वह modify करता है | 
Example : He is rich enough to buy a car.

Rule 8. very का प्रयोग Positive degree के Adjective तथा Adverb के साथ होता है | 
Examples : very intelligent, very interesting, very good, very insulting etc.
(a) The film is very interesting.
(b) I love her very dearly.

Rule 9. कभी-कभी much का प्रयोग Comparative degree के Adjective के साथ है | 
Examples : much better, much surprised, much pleased etc.
(a) Sita is much better than Geeta.
(b) Sarthak is much superior to the other boy.

Rule 10. Adverb 'too' का अर्थ जरूरत से ज्यादा होता है | too को very के अर्थ में प्रयोग नहीं करना चाहिए | 
Examples :
(a) Incorrect : The wind is very cold.
Correct : The wind is too cold.
(b) Incorrect : The girl is too beautiful.
Correct : The girl is very beautiful.


EXERCISE
Fill in the blanks with correct adverbs or adverb phrases given in brackets:
(a) .............. we .......... play cricket.       (often, on Sundays)
(b) This boy ........... speaks .............     (with great confidence, always)
(c) ............ she called on me ............    (last Sunday, at 7 o' clock)
(d) I found her weeping .......... ..........    (bitterly, in her room)
(e) She was ......... convinced ............    (at that moment, fully)
(f) She is ......... afraid ...........                 (of darkness, much)
(g) Riya ........... remained ..............        (generally, happy)
(h) ............ he acts ..................               (bravely, on such occasions)
(i) I have ....... met the landlord .......       (in his office, just)
(j) I have left my keys ................             (in the library, somewhere)


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Definition : Those words which modifies the meaning of an Adjective, verb or other Adverb are called Adverb.
परिभाषा : संज्ञा, सर्वनाम को छोड़कर विशेषण, क्रिया या किसी क्रिया विशेषण की विशेषता बताने वाले शब्द क्रिया विशेषण कहलाते है |


Following are the main types of the Adverbs. Underlined words in sentences are Adverbs.
1. Simple Adverb (सरल क्रिया विशेषण) : Following are the types of Simple Adverb.

(i) Adverb of Time (कालवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of when something happened, happening or going to happen are called Adverbs of Time.
Examples : early, daily, now, lately, never, soon, recently, always, sometimes etc. 
(a) She went early.
(b) He walks daily.

(ii) Adverb of Place (स्थानवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of where something happened, happening or going to happen are called Adverbs of Place.
Examples : here, away, above, below, everywhere, out, in, there etc.
(a) Come here.
(b) She went away.

(iii) Adverb of Number or Frequency (बारम्बारता वाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of how often something happened, happening or going to happen are called Adverbs of Number or Frequency.
Examples : again, always, each day, everyday, daily, twice, never, always, often etc.
(a) She has come again.
(b) You should always speak the truth.

(iv) Adverb of Manner (रीतिवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of how something happened, happening or going to happen are called Adverbs of Manner.
Examples : fast, hard, well, clearly, slowly, quickly, sadly, loudly etc.
(a) She runs fast.
(b) He reads clearly.

(v) Adverb of Degree or Quantity (मात्रावाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of how much or to which extent something happened, happening or going to happen are called Adverbs of Degree or Quantity.
Examples : quite, too, nearly, almost, much, hardly etc.
(a) She is quite strong.
(b) She is too weak to walk.



(vi) Adverb of Reason (कारणवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of cause or intention of something are called Adverbs of Reason.
Examples : therefore, hence, thus, so, because, as, since, that etc.
(a) He therefore lost the chance.
(b) She ran so dog barked on her.

(vii) Adverb of Affirmation (स्वीकृतिवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of confirmation or acceptance of something are called Adverbs of Affirmation.
Examples : yes, surely, certainly, truly, undoubtedly, clearly, exactly, affirmatively, obviously etc.
(a) Surely, she is rich.
(b) Yes, I will do my work.

(viii) Adverb of Negation (अस्वीकृतिवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of disapproval or rejection of something are called Adverbs of Negation.
Examples : not, no, never, hardly, almost, rarely, scarcely, barely, seldom, rare etc.
(a) I do not know him.
(b) No, she is still here.

2. Interrogative Adverb (प्रश्नवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which use first in sentences and ask questions are called Interrogative Adverbs.
Examples : why, when, where, how etc.
(a) Where do you live ?
(b) How are you ?

3. Relative Adverb (सम्बन्धवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which connect two sentences and modify the verb of sentences come after those words are called Relative Adverbs.
Examples : when, where, why etc.
(a) This is the place where I live.
(b) I know the time when he will come.