January 2015
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It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that will start in future and is thought to be continued till sometime in future. There will be a time reference, such as “since 1989, for two hours etc”.

Affirmative Sentences
Rule 1:  Subject (I, We) + shall have been + (1st Form of Verb + ing) + Object + Time reference


Rule 2: Subject (other than I, We) + will have been + (1st Form of Verb + ing) + Object + Time reference 

Rule 3: Use 'for' or 'since' for showing time reference. 'Since' is for 'Point of Time'. eg. since Tuesday, since 1998, since morning, since 4 o'clock etc.

Rule 4: Use 'for' for 'Period of Time'. eg. for two days, for three months, for five hours etc.


Examples:
1. They will have been playing for two hours.
2. The girl will have been sleeping since morning.
3. We shall have been working in this department for two months.

Negative Sentences
Rule 1:  Subject + will have/shall have + not + been + (1st Form of Verb + ing) + Object + Time Reference

Examples:
1. She will not have been reading for two days.
2. I shall not have been suffering from fever since Monday.

Interrogative Sentences
Rule 1: Will/Shall + Subject + have + been + (1st Form of Verb + ing) + Object + Time reference
(See Examples 1, 2)

Rule 2: When/Why/What/Where + will/shall + Subject + have + been + (1st Form of Verb + ing) + Object + Time reference (See Examples 4, 6)

Rule 3: How much/How many/Whose/Which also used with their related nouns.(See Example 5)

Rule 4: Interrogative negative sentences are just like Interrogative affirmative sentences with only use of not after subject.
Will/Shall + subject + not + have + been + (1st form of verb + ing) + Object + Time Reference
(See example 3)

Rule 5: Must put Question Mark (?) at the end of a sentence.


Examples:
1. Shall we have been waiting for him since morning ?
2. Will that lazy boy have been sleeping for two hours ?
3. Will you not have been reading for two days ?
4. Why will they have been wasting their time since 5 o'clock ?
5. How many boys will have been making a noise since noon ?
6. Where will the boys have been playing since 2 o'clock ?

Tenses - English to English Translation
Simple Tense

 Continuous Tense

Perfect Tense


Tenses - Hindi to English Translation
Simple Tense
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It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that started in past and continued until sometime in past.
There will be a time reference, such as “since 1989, for two hours etc”.


Affirmative Sentences
Rule 1: Subject + had been + (1st Form of Verb + ing) + Object + Time reference (See Examples 1,2,3)

Rule 2: Use 'for' or 'since' for showing time reference. 'Since' is for 'Point of Time'. eg. since Tuesday, since 1998, since morning, since 4 o'clock etc.

Rule 3: Use 'for' for 'Period of Time'. eg. for two days, for three months, for five hours etc.

Examples:
1. Seema had been playing with her dolls since morning.
2. They had been waiting for me for five hours.
3. Those women had been washing their clothes for three hours.

Negative Sentences
Rule : Subject + had + not + been + (1st Form of Verb + ing) + Object + Time Reference

Examples:
1. She had not been reading for two days.
2. Rahul had not been teaching me for two years.
3. I had not been suffering from fever since Monday.

Interrogative Sentences
Rule 1: Had + Subject + been + (1st Form of Verb + ing) + Object + Time reference
(See Examples 1, 2)

Rule 2: When/Why/What/Where + had + Subject + been + (1st Form of Verb + ing) + Object + Time reference (See Example 4)

Rule 3: How much/How many/Whose/Which also used with their related nouns.(See Example 3)

Rule 4: Interrogative negative sentences are just like Interrogative affirmative sentences with only use of not after the subject.
Had + subject + not + been + (1st form of verb + ing) + Object + Time Reference
(See example 2)

Rule 5: Must put Question Mark (?) at the end of a sentence.


Examples:
1. Had he been doing his work for three hours ?
2. Had they not been helping me for many years ?
3. How many players had been playing the match since morning ?
4. Why had the dogs been running for an year ?

Tenses - English to English Translation
Simple Tense

 Continuous Tense

Perfect Tense


Tenses - Hindi to English Translation
Simple Tense
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It is used to express a continued or ongoing action that started in past and is continued until now. There will be a time reference, such as “since 1989, for two hours etc” from which the action has been started.

Affirmative Sentences
Rule 1:  Subject (Single number/third person/He,She,It) + has been + (1st Form of Verb + ing) + Object + Time reference (See Examples 1,2,3)

Rule 2: Subject (Plural number/I,You,We,They) + have been + (1st Form of Verb + ing) + Object + Time reference (See Examples 4,5) 

Rule 3: Use 'for' or 'since' for showing time reference. 'Since' is for 'Point of Time'. eg. since Tuesday, since 1998, since morning, since 4 o'clock etc.

Rule 4: Use 'for' for 'Period of Time'. eg. for two days, for three months, for five hours etc.


Examples:
1. Sam has been reading this book for two hours.
2. The girl has been sleeping since morning.
3. He has been living in this house since January.
4. We have been working in this department for two months.
5. I have been washing clothes since five in the morning.

Negative Sentences
Rule 1:  Subject (Single number/third person/Plural number) + has/have + not + been + (1st Form of Verb + ing) + Object + Time Reference

Examples:
1. She has not been reading for two days.
2. Rahul has not been teaching me for two years.
3. I have not been suffering from fever since Monday.

Interrogative Sentences
Rule 1:  Has/Have + Subject (Single number/third person/Plural number) + been + (1st Form of Verb + ing) + Object + Time reference
(See Examples 1, 2)

Rule 2: when/why/what/where + has/have + Subject + been + (1st Form of Verb + ing) + Object + Time reference (See Examples 5, 6)

Rule 3: how much/how many/whose/which also used with their related nouns.(See Examples 4, 7)

Rule 4:  If any interrogative word works like a subject then write it first then carry on with has/have + been + (1st form of verb + ing) + Object + Time Reference (See Example 8)

Rule 5: Interrogative negative sentences are just like Interrogative affirmative sentences with only use of not after subject.
Has/Have + subject + not + been + (1st form of verb + ing) + Object + Time Reference
(See example 3)

Rule 6: Must put Question Mark (?) in the end of sentence.


Examples:
1. Has he been doing his work for three hours ?
2. Have they been helping me for many years ?
3. Have I not been reading my book since morning ?
4. How many boys have been living in this house for one year ?
5. What have you been doing here for two days ?
6. Why have they been wasting their time since July?
7. Which book has the teacher been teaching since Friday ?
8. Who has been waiting for you since evening ?

Tenses - English to English Translation
Simple Tense

 Continuous Tense

Perfect Tense


Tenses - Hindi to English Translation
Simple Tense
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Mixed Sentences

If there are different types of sentences in Reported Speech then for making indirect, rules must be used according to the type of sentence. Firstly, make the indirect of every part of sentences differently. There should be a use of particular Reporting Verb before every type of sentence. Lastly, all the sentences should be written together.
(Hindi translation) यदि किसी reported speech में विभिन्न प्रकार के वाक्य हों तो वाक्य के प्रकार के अनुसार ही Indirect बनाने के नियमों का प्रयोग करना चाहिए । प्रत्येक प्रकार के वाक्य के पहले उसके अनुकूल Reporting Verb का प्रयोग करना चाहिए और अंत में सब वाक्यों को मिलाकर एक साथ लिखना चाहिए ।

Direct : The teacher became angry with the student and said, "Why have you again disturbed the class in this way? I have told you before, that when I am speaking, you should be silent. Leave the room and do not return today."
Indirect : The teacher became angry with the student and asked why he had again disturbed the class in that way. He reminded him that he had told him before that he should be silent when he was speaking. He therefore ordered him to leave the room and not to return again that day.


Dialogues
(i) Dialogues are direct but sometimes they are used without inverted commas. So we must watch that conversation is going between whom and what is the relation between them. Generally, the one who speaks known as the subject of Reporting Verb and whom talking to known as Object.
(ii) Sometimes Reporting Verb does not remain present. In these conditions Reporting Verb (told, asked, requested, ordered etc) should be used according to aspect or notion.
(iii) when Reporting verb is not given then make it in the past tense.
(Hindi Translation) 
(i) Dialogues Direct में होते हैं , परन्तु फिर भी उनमें Inverted commas नहीं दिए जाते हैं इसलिए देख लेना चाहिए की वार्तालाप किस -किस के बीच हो रहा हैं तथा उनमें क्या सम्बन्ध हैं । साधारणतया जो पात्र बोलता है वह Reporting Verb का कर्ता होता है और जिससे बात कही जाती है वह object होता है ।
(ii) कभी -कभी Reporting verb नहीं दिया होता है । ऐसी दशा में भाव के अनुसार Reporting Verb (told, asked, requested, ordered etc) का प्रयोग करना चाहिए । 
(iii) जब Reporting verb न दिया हो तो उसे past tense में बनाते है । 

Direct : Seema said to Reema, "Will you go to school today?"
Reema said, "No."
Seema said, "Why ?"
Reema said, "Because I am not feeling well."
Indirect : Seema asked Reema whether she would go to school that day. Reema replied that she would not go. Seema asked her why she would not go. Reema replied that she would not go because she was not feeling well.

Recommended PostExercises based on the use of Mixed Sentences and Dialogues - Direct and Indirect Narration

Direct and Indirect Narration
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Kind of the sentenceNature of the sentenceReporting verbConjunction
 AssertiveGeneral Statementsaid/toldthat
InterrogativeQuestion(?) mark at the end of a sentence.
(i)Starting with 'who', 'which', 'what', 'why', 'when', 'where', 'how' etc. question words.
(ii)Starting with 'do', 'did', 'is', 'was', 'can', 'shall', 'will', 'have' etc helping verbs.
asked/ enquired of(i)No different connective; Question word use as a conjunction.
(ii) if or whether
Imperativerequest, order, advise etc. The sentence starts with a verb. 
Subject 'you' remains hidden.
requested, 
begged, 
commanded, 
ordered, 
advised, 
forbade
Do not use conjunction after Reporting verb.
OptativeWish cognitive or pray to GodWished or prayedthat
Exclamatorysurprise, sorrow, joy indicator. 
Exclamation (!) mark at the end of the sentence.
exclaimed, 
cried out, 
shouted etc.
that


Direct and Indirect Narration
Introduction
इनमें joy, sorrow, surprise आदि प्रकट किया जाता हैं ।
Exclamatory Sentences - Direct and Indirect Speech

Rule 1: Interjections को समाप्त कर देते हैं क्योकि इनके भाव तो Reporting verb से स्पष्ट हो जाते हैं ।
Interjection - Hurrah से joy, Alas से sorrow, what a तथा how से surprise तथा bravo से approval प्रकट होता है । 

Rule 2: Inverted commas को that में बदल देते हैं । 

Rule 3: Note of exclamation (!) के बदले full stop (.) का  प्रयोग करते हैं  । 

Rule 4: Person और Tense का परिवर्तन Assertive वाक्य की तरह होता है । 

Rule 5: Reporting verb 'said' के स्थान पर परिवर्तन निम्न प्रकार से करने चाहिए :
i) यदि प्रसन्नता प्रकट की गयी है, तो exclaimed with joy या exclaimed with delight का प्रयोग करते हैं । 
Direct : He said, "Hurrah! I have passed the examination."
Indirect : He exclaimed with delight that he had passed the examination.

ii) यदि शोक प्रकट किया हो, तो exclaimed with sorrow या exclaimed with grief का प्रयोग करते हैं । 
Direct : The student said, "Alas! My friend is dead."
Indirect : The student exclaimed with sorrow that his friend was dead.


iii) यदि प्रशंसा की गयी है, तो praised या applauded का प्रयोग करते है । 
Direct : The soldiers said, "Bravo! We have won."
Indirect :  The soldiers applauded they had won.

iv) What a या How से अधिकता प्रकट होती है  इसलिए इनके स्थान पर very या great का प्रयोग करते है । 
यदि what a या how के बाद noun आये तो उसे great से बदलते है परन्तु उसके बाद Adjective आने पर उसे very में बदलते हैं इसमें Reporting verb said को exclaimed में बदल देते हैं । 
a) Direct : The child said, "How beautiful the flower is !"
Indirect : The child exclaimed that the flower was very beautiful.

b) Direct : The master said, "What a lazy fellow you are !"
Indirect : The master exclaimed that I was a very lazy fellow.

v) यदि वाक्य में Good Heavens का प्रयोग हो तो Reporting verb को exclaimed with surprise में बदल देते हैं । 
Direct : The old man said, "Good Heavens! The hut has caught fire."
Indirect : The old man exclaimed with surprise that the hut had caught fire.

Recommended PostExercises based on the use of Exclamatory Sentences - Direct and Indirect Narration

Direct and Indirect Narration