May 2017
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Definition: Those words which show an action or existence of some work are called Verbs. These words are used for saying something about some person, place or thing.
परिभाषा: ऐसे शब्द जिनसे किसी कार्य का करना या होना पाया जाये क्रिया कहलाते हैं | ये शब्द किसी व्यक्ति, वस्तु या स्थान के बारे में कुछ कहते हैं |

There are mainly four types of verb. Underline words are verbs. 
1. Transitive Verb (सकर्मक क्रिया): Transitive Verb is an action verb which has a direct object.
Examples : 
(a) She wrote a letter.  (Transitive Verb - wrote, Direct object - letter)
(b) She loves birds.  (Transitive Verb - loves, Direct object - birds)
(c) He left the book on the table.  (Transitive Verb - left, Direct object - book)

2. Intransitive Verb (अकर्मक क्रिया): Intransitive Verb is an action verb which has no direct object.
Examples : 
(a) The sun shines brightly. (Intransitive Verb - shines)
(b) The girl is crying. (Intransitive Verb - is crying)
(c) The bus arrives at 1 o'clock. (Intransitive Verb - arrives)


3. Linking Verb (संयोजक क्रिया): Linking Verb is a connecting or relationship verb of a subject and its predicate. 
Some common linking verbs are: is, are, am, was, were, has, have, had, will, is being, had been, appear, become, feel, grow, seem, keep, look, stay, sound, taste, smell, turn, get, remain etc.
Examples : 
(a) My father was a player. (Linking verb - was)
(b) She is beautiful. (Linking verb - is)
(c) The baby elephant looks cute. (Linking verb - looks)

4. Auxiliary Verb (सहायक क्रिया): Auxiliary Verb is also known as Helping Verb. It is used to write sentences in different tenses, passive voice, moods, negative and interrogative sentences.
Common Auxiliary verbs are :
(i) be: is, are, am, was, were, are not etc.
(ii) do: do, does, did, did not etc.
(iii) have: has, have, had, had not etc.
Examples : 
(a) She has helped me. (Present perfect tense, Auxiliary verb - has)
(b) I have been helped by her. (Passive voice, Auxiliary verb - have been)
(c) Does he play cricket? (Interrogative sentence, Auxiliary verb - does)

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Rule 1. जब Adjective शब्द Noun से पहले आता है तो इसको Attributive use of Adjective कहते है |
Example : She is a beautiful girl. (beautiful is Adjective and girl is Noun)

जब Noun शब्द Verb से पहले और Adjective शब्द Verb के बाद आता है तो इसको Predicative use of Adjective कहते है |
Example : The girl is beautiful.


Rule 2. जब कोई Adjective, title की तरह प्रयोग किया जाये तो उसे Noun के बाद रखते है |
Example : Kalidas the greatest poet of India wrote many poems.

Rule 3. Phrases में Adjective को उसके Noun के बाद  रखते हैं |
Examples : God the Almighty, Heir apparent, Time immemorial आदि |

Rule 4. Inferior, prior, junior, senior, superior आदि शब्द जिन्हें Comparative degree में ही प्रयोग करते हैं इनके बाद than के स्थान पर to का प्रयोग करते हैं |
Example : She is senior to me.

Rule 5. exterior, former, latter, inner, interior, major, minor, outer, upper आदि Adjectives, Positive degree की तरह प्रयोग होते हैं |
Example : She has received a minor injury.

Rule 6. chief, complete, eternal, entire, extreme, empty, ideal, perfect, round, square, universal, unique आदि Adjectives की Comparative और Superlative degree नहीं बनती हैं |
Example :
Incorrect : She is a most perfect girl.
Correct : She is a perfect girl.

Rule 7. दो व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं की तुलना के लिए Comparative degree और इससे अधिक के लिए Superlative degree का प्रयोग करते हैं |
Examples  :
(a) She is the wiser than him. (Wiser - Comparative degree)
(b) She is the wisest of all. (Wisest - Superlative degree)

Rule 8. जब एक ही व्यक्ति या वस्तु के दो गुणों की तुलना की जाये तो Comparative degree का प्रयोग न करके Positive degree के Adjective से पहले more का प्रयोग करते हैं |
Example : Geeta is more brave than wise.

Rule 9. Prefer तथा Preferable में तुलना के लिए इनसे पहले more नहीं लगाना चाहिए और इनके साथ than के स्थान पर to का प्रयोग करना चाहिए |
Example : 
(a) She prefers mangoes to grapes.
(b) Milk is preferable to tea. 

Rule 10. जब दो Adjectives एक ही Noun से सम्बन्ध रखते हो तो दोनों एक ही तरह की degree में आयेगे |
Example : This is the best and the cheapest laptop in the market. (best, cheapest - superlative degrees)

Rule 11. तुलना केवल एक ही तरह के व्यक्ति या वस्तु में की जानी चाहिए |
एकवचन के लिए that of  तथा बहुवचन के लिए those of का प्रयोग करते है |
Example : 
(a) My house is bigger than that of my uncle.
(b) The streets of New York are wider than those of Delhi.

Rule 12. Double comparatives तथा Double superlatives का प्रयोग नहीं करना चाहिए |
Examples :
Incorrect : She is more cleverer than her cousin.
Correct :  She is cleverer than her cousin.

Rule 13. Few, many, several आदि Adjectives of Number हैं | इनका प्रयोग Adjectives of Quantity की तरह नहीं करना चाहिए |
Example :
Incorrect : This boy has taken many milk.
Correct : This boy has taken much milk.



Rule 14. Some, all, most, no, any आदि Adjectives, Adjectives of Number तथा Adjectives of Quantity दोनों में प्रयोग किये जाते हैं |
Example : 
(a) Adjective of Number : She has purchased some clothes.
(b) Adjective of Quantity : Bring me some milk in the cup.

Rule 15. Adjectives of number 'Few', 'a few' and 'the few' का प्रयोग countable noun के साथ होता है | 
(a) Few का अर्थ है नहीं के बराबर |
Example : She has few friends in the school.

(b) A few का अर्थ है कुछ |
Example : She wants a few magazines. 

(c) The few का अर्थ है कुछ थोड़ा |
Example : The few words that she spoke were beautiful.

Rule 16. Less और fewer का प्रयोग :
Less का प्रयोग Quantity बताने के लिए तथा fewer का प्रयोग Number बताने के लिए करते है | 
Examples: 
(a) Incorrect : No less than fifty people attended the party.
Correct : No fewer than fifty people attended the party.
(b) Incorrect : There is fewer tea in this cup than that.
Correct : There is less tea in this cup than that.

Rule 17. यदि both, Adjective की तरह प्रयोग हो तो उसके बाद the प्रयोग करते है | 
Example : Your brother came here on both the days.

Rule 18. Adjectives of quantity, 'little', 'a little' and 'the little' का प्रयोग uncountable noun के साथ होता है | 
(a) Little का अर्थ है नहीं के बराबर |
Example : There is little milk in the bottle.

(b) A little का अर्थ है कुछ |
Example : A little knowledge is dangerous.

(c) The little का अर्थ है कुछ थोड़ा, लेकिन सब |
Example : Do not waste the little water you have.

Rule 19. Farther, further, nearest, next का प्रयोग :
Farther और nearest का प्रयोग distance(दूरी) दिखाने में होता है | 
Example : 
(a) Delhi is farther from Mumbai than Lucknow.
(b) The nearest hospital is two km from here.

Further का ओर आगे के लिए :
Example : She does not need any further help.

Next का position दिखाने के लिए :
Example : My flat is in the next building.

Rule 20. Elder, eldest, older, oldest का प्रयोग :
Elder तथा eldest का प्रयोग एक ही परिवार के लोगों को दर्शाने के लिए होता है | 
Examples : 
(a) My elder brother is an Engineer.
(b) Radha is my eldest sister. (eldest means बहिनों-भाईओ में सबसे बड़ी )

Older तथा oldest का प्रयोग व्यक्ति तथा वस्तु दोनों के लिए करते है | 
Examples :
(a) Vivek is older than his friend.
(b) Delhi is the oldest city of India.

Rule 21. The two first का प्रयोग न करके इसके स्थान पर The first two का प्रयोग करना चाहिए | 
Example :
Incorrect: The first two chapters of this book are very interesting.
Correct: The first two chapters of this book are very interesting.

Rule 22. Later और latest का प्रयोग Time(समय) के लिए , latter और last का Position(स्थिति) या Order(क्रम) बताने के लिए करते है | 
Example :
(a) This girl entered the room later than Seema.
(b) What is the latest news ?
(c) The latter songs of this list are not very good.
(d) After last night, I decided to stay away from her.

दो व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं के बारे में बात करते समय पहले के लिए former तथा दूसरे के लिए latter का प्रयोग करते है | 
Example :
Tulsidas and Surdas were great poets but the former was greater than the latter.


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Definition : A word which describes the speciality of Noun or Pronoun is called Adjective. 
परिभाषा : जो शब्द किसी संज्ञा या सर्वनाम की विशेषता बताता है, विशेषण कहलाता है | 


1. Qualitative Adjective (गुणवाचक विशेषण) :
A Qualitative Adjective shows the kind or quality of a person or thing.
Examples : good, honest, large, foolish, happy, sad etc.
(a) He is an honest man.
(b) Delhi is a large city.

2. Quantitative Adjective (परिमाणवाचक विशेषण) :
A Quantitative Adjective shows the quantity(how much) of a things.
(i) Definite Quantitative Adjective (निश्चित परिमाणवाचक विशेषण) :
Examples : two kg, three meters, one dozen, two litres etc.
(ii) Indefinite Quantitative Adjective (अनिश्चित परिमाणवाचक विशेषण) :
Examples : some, much, little, any etc.
(a) He has little intelligence.
(b) I ate some rice.
(c) Please bring two litres milk.

3. Numeral Adjective (संख्यावाचक विशेषण) :
A Numeral Adjective shows numbers(how many) of persons or things.
(i) Definite Numeral Adjective (निश्चित संख्यावाचक विशेषण) :
Examples : (Cardinals denote how many) one, two, three
(Ordinals denote order of things) first, second, third
(ii) Indefinite Numeral Adjective (अनिश्चित संख्यावाचक विशेषण) :
Examples : all, many, few, some, any, several, enough etc.
(a) I have three apples.
(b) Some girls are clever.
(c) There are not enough spoons.

4. Demonstrative Adjective (सार्वनामिक विशेषण) :
A Demonstrative Adjective points out specific person or thing.
Examples : (Used with singular nouns) This, That, 
(Used with plural nouns) These, Those
(a) This bag is empty.
(b) That girl is beautiful.
(c) These grapes are sour.
(d) Those boys are playing football.



5. Interrogative Adjective (प्रश्नवाचक विशेषण) :
An Interrogative Adjective is used with nouns to ask questions. 
Examples : What, Which, Whose
(a) What time is it ?
(b) Which book shall we read first ?
(c) Whose laptop is this ?

6. Emphasizing Adjective (जोर डालने वाले विशेषण) :
The words 'own' and 'very' are used as Emphasizing Adjectives.
Examples :
(a) Mind your own business.
(b) This is the very book they want.

7. Exclamatory Adjective (विस्मयबोधक विशेषण) :
The word 'what' is sometimes used as an Exclamatory Adjective.
Examples :
(a) What an idea !
(b) What a handsome boy he is !


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Grandparents
Father's Father (paternal grandfather) — दादा (dada)
Father's Mother (paternal grandmother) — दादी (dadi)
Mother's Father (maternal grandfather) — नाना (nana)
Mother's Mother (maternal grandmother) — नानी (nani)

Spouses and parents-in-law
Husband — पति (pati)
Wife — पत्नी (patni)
Husband's Mother (Mother-in-law) — सास (saas)
Husband's Father (Father-in-law) — ससुर (sasur)
Fiancé or Fiancée —-मंगेतर (mangetar)

Siblings and siblings-in-law
Brother — भाई (bhai)
Brother's Wife — भाभी (bhabhi)
Elder Brother — भइया (bhaiya)
Step Brother – सौतेला भाई (sotela bhai)
Step Father – सौतेला पिता (sotela pita)
Step Mother – सौतेली माँ (soteli maa)
Step Sister – सौतेली बहन (soteli bahan)


Adopted Daughter – गोद ली हुई बेटी (god li hui beti)
Adopted Son – गोद लिया पुत्र (god liya hua putra)
Younger Brother — छोटा भाई (chotaa bhaai)
Husband's sister - ननद (nanad)
Sister — बहिन (bahin) or बहन (bahan)
Sister's husband (Brother-in-law) — जीजा (jiijaa) or बहनोई (bahanoii)
Elder Sister — दीदी (didi) or जीजी (jiijii)
Younger Sister — छोटी बहन (choti bahan)
Husband's elder brother — जेठ (jeth)
Husband's younger brother — देवर (devar)
Elder brother's wife — भाभी (bhabhi) or भौजी (bhauji) or भौजाई (bhaujaai)
Younger brother's wife — बहू (bahu) or भयो (bhayo)
Wife's Sister ( sister in law ) — साली (saali)
Wife's Brother ( brother in law ) — साला (sala)
Husband's Sister's Husband — नन्दोई (nandoi)
Wife's sister's husband — साडू (sadu)
Husband's elder brother's wife — जेठानी (jethani)
Husband's younger brother's wife — देवरानी (devrani)

Children and children-in-law
Son — बेटा (beta) or पुत्र (putra)
Son's wife (daughter-in-law) — बहू (bahu)
Daughter — बेटी (beti) or पुत्री (putri)
Daughter's husband (son-in-law) — दामाद (damad) or जमाई (jamai)

Grandchildren
Grandson (son's son) — पोता (pota)
Granddaughter (son's daughter) — पोती (poti)
Grandson (daughter's son) — नाती (nati) or नवासा (navasa)
Granddaughter (daughter's daughter) — नातिन (natin) or नवासी (navasi)


Aunts and uncles
Father's younger brother (uncle) — चाचा (chacha)
Father's younger brother's wife (aunt) — चाची (chachi)
Father's elder brother's (Uncle) — ताऊ (taau)
Father's elder brother's wife (Aunt) — ताई (taai)
Father's sister (aunt) — बुआ (bua) or फूफी (phuphi)
Father's sister's husband  — फूफा (phupha)
Mother's brother ( maternal uncle )— मामा (mama)
Mother's brother's wife ( maternal aunty)— मामी (mami)
Mother's sister ( maternal mother )— मौसी (mausi)
Mother's sister's husband ( maternal father )— मौसा (mausa)

Nephews and nieces
Brother's son (nephew) — भतीजा (bhatija)
Sister's son (nephew) — भान्जा (bhanja)
Brother's daughter (niece) — भतीजी (bhatiji)
Sister's daughter (niece) — भान्जी (bhanji)