September 2014
Tenses में परिवर्तन सम्बन्धी नियम (Rules for the change of Tenses)

Rule 1: यदि Reporting Verb, Present अथवा Future Tense मे हो। तो Reported Speech के Verb के Tense में किसी प्रकार का परिवर्तन नहीं करते हैं । जैसे:
Direct - Ram says, "Hari has gone to Agra."
Indirect - Ram says that Hari has gone to Agra.
Direct - Sohan will say, "Asha is very intelligent."
Indirect - Sohan will say that Asha is very intelligent.
Direct - He has said to me, "Ravi will join the camp."
Indirect - He has told me that Ravi will join the camp.

Note : say, says या said को Indirect Speech में tell, tells या told में उस समय बदलते है, जब इसके बाद Object (कर्म ) हो । यदि say, says या said के बाद Object न हो तो उन्हें नहीं बदलते । 

Rule 2: यदि Reporting Verb, Past Tense में हो , तो Reported Speech के Tense में परिवर्तन होता है । 
a) Simple Present Tense बदलकर Simple Past Tense हो जाता है। जैसे :
Direct - Mohan said, "Raman tells a lie."
Indirect - Mohan said that Raman told a lie.


b) Present Continuous या Imperfect को Past Continuous या Imperfect में बदल देते है । जैसे:
Direct - Sonu said to me, "Rakesh is writing a book."
Indirect - Sonu told me that Rakesh was writing a book.

c) Present Perfect Tense को Past Perfect Tense में बदल देते है। जैसे:
Direct - Ramesh said, "Raman has completed his work."
Indirect - Ramesh said that Raman had completed his work.

d) Present Perfect Continuous को Past Perfect Continuous में बदल देते हैं । जैसे:
Direct - He said, "It has been raining since morning."
Indirect - He said that it had been raining since morning.

e) Past Indefinite को बदल कर Past Perfect में कर देते हैं । जैसे:
Direct - He said, "The horse died in the night ."
Indirect - He said that the horse had died in the night.

f) Past Continuous को Past Perfect Continuous में बदल देते हैं । जैसे:
Direct - He said, "The students were learning their lessons."
Indirect - He said that the students had been learning their lessons.

g) Past Perfect Tense तथा Past Perfect Continuous में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता है। जैसे:
1. Direct - He said, "Uma had won the match."
    Indirect - He said that Uma had won the match.
2. Direct - She said, "Uma had been reading for two hours."
    Indirect - She said that Uma had been reading for two hours.


h) यदि Reporting Verb भूतकाल (Past Tense) में है, तो Reported Speech में आने वाले 'shall' को should एवं 'will' को would में बदल देते है। जैसे:
1. Direct - I said, "I shall play."
    Indirect - I said that I should play.
2. Direct - She said, "Uma will see a picture."
    Indirect - She said that Uma would see a picture.

i) यदि Reporting Verb Past Tense में है, तो Reported Speech में आने वाले 'can' को could तथा 'may' को might में बदल देते है । परन्तु 'must', 'ought', 'could', 'would', 'might', 'had better' तथा 'used to' में परिवर्तन नहीं होता है । जैसे :

1. Direct - I said, "I can jump into the river."
    Indirect - I said that I could jump into the river.
2. Direct - She said, "The boy may go."
    Indirect - She said that the boy might go.
3. Direct - The teacher said, "Ram must be awarded."
    Indirect - I said that Ram must be awarded.
4. Direct - She said to me, "I should have tried harder."
    Indirect - She told me that I should have tried harder.

Tense सम्बन्धी नियम के अपवाद (Exceptions)
नीचे लिखी दशाओ में Reporting Verb, Past Tense में होते हुए भी Reported Speech का Tense नहीं बदलता है :
(1) जब कोई सदा सत्य रहने वाली बात (Universal Truth) कही जाए; जैसे :
1. Direct - The teacher said, "The earth moves around the sun."
    Indirect - The teacher said that the earth moves around the sun.
2. Direct - He said, "The sun rises in the east."
    Indirect - He said that the sun rises in the east.

(2) जब कोई आदत सम्बन्धी सत्य (Habitual fact) कहा जाए; जैसे:
1. Direct - Hari said to Ravi, "Dogs bark at the strangers."
    Indirect - Hari told Ravi that dogs bark at the strangers.
2. Direct - The teacher said, "When the cat is away, the mice play."
    Indirect - The teacher said that when the cat is away, the mice play.


(3) जब कोई कहावत (Proverb) कही जाए; जैसे: 
    Direct - Hari said, "Honesty is the best policy."
    Indirect - Hari said that honesty is the best policy.


(4) जब किसी ऐतिहासिक घटना (Historical fact) का जिक्र हो; जैसे:
    Direct - The History teacher said, "Samudra Gupta is called the Napoleon of India."
    Indirect - The History teacher said that Samudra Gupta is called the Napoleon of India.

Recommended Post - Exercises based on the use of Assertive Sentences Part 1 - Direct and Indirect Narration

Direct and Indirect Narration
1. वक्ता (Speaker) के कहे हुए शब्दों को दो प्रकार  से प्रकट किया जा है। 
i) हम वक्ता के शब्दों को ज्यों का त्यों कह सकते हैं । जैसे -
He said, "I am going to Delhi." (Direct Narration or Direct Speech)
उपयुक्त वाक्य मे वक्ता (speaker) he है तथा he के कहे हुए शब्दों को ज्यो का त्यों Inverted commas ".........." मे लिखा गया है । 
ii) हम वक्ता के कहे हुए शब्दों का सारांश (Substance) प्रकट करते है । जैसे -
He said that he was going to Delhi. (Indirect Narration or Indirect Speech)
उपयुक्त वाक्य मे वक्ता के शब्दों को ज्यो का त्यों न कहकर उसका भाव प्रकट किया जाता है । इसलिए "I" को "he" में तथा "am" को "was" में बदलना पड़ा । 
Indirect Speech में Inverted commas का प्रयोग नहीं होता है । 

2. Direct Narration के दो भाग होते है - Reporting Verb तथा Reported Part या Reported Speech.
i) Reporting Verb - Reporting Part मे वक्ता बात को जिस Finite Verb से आरम्भ करता है उसे Reporting Verb कहते हैं । इसको Invented Commas से बाहर लिखा जाता है । 
ii) Reported Speech - जो कुछ वक्ता द्वारा कहा जाता है उसे Reported Part या Reported Speech कहते हैं। इसे Inverted Commas के अंदर लिखा जाता है । जैसे -
Reported Verb - Ram said
Reported Part या Reported Speech - "Will you give me your pen?" 


Direct Speech के मुख्य बिन्दु :
1. Direct Speech मे वक्ता के कथन को Inverted Commas के अंदर रखा जाता है । 
2. Reporting Verb के पश्चात् comma(,) का प्रयोग होता है । 
3. Invered commas के अन्दर के भाग का प्रथम अक्षर Capital letter से लिखा जाता है । 

Direct से Indirect मे बदलने के सामान्य नियम :
1. Indirect Speech मे Inverted Commas "......." को हटा देते है । 
2. Reporting Verb के बाद comma(,) का प्रयोग नहीं होता । 
3. Reporting Verb का tense कभी नहीं बदलता । 
4. Reporting Verb को Reported speech के भाव के अनुसार told, requested, advised, ordered आदि में बदल देते हैं । 

Direct and Indirect Narration

  • A page digested is better than a volume hurriedly read. - Bacon
  • A man's wisdom is his best friend, folly his worst enemy - Sir W. Temple
  • A thing of beauty is a joy forever. - J. Keats
  • All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players. - Shakespeare
  • A house without books is like a room without window. - Mann
  • An honest man's the noblest work of God. Pope
  • A little learning is a dangerous thing. - Pope
  • Behaviour is a mirror in which everyone displays his image. - Goethe
  • Brevity is the soul of wit. - Shakespeare
  • Better to reign in hell than serve in Heaven. - Milton
  • Books are those faithful mirrors that reflect our mind. -Gibbon
  • Civility costs nothing but buys everything. - Montagu
  • Contentment is natural wealth, luxury is artificial poverty. - Socrates
  • Death is the golden key that opens the palace of eternity. - Milton
  • Do the duty, reward is not the concern. - Gita
  • God could not be everywhere and, therefore, he made mothers. - Rudyard Kipling
  • Have more than you show, speak less than you know. - William Shakespeare
  • History repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce. - Karl Marx
  • Honesty is the best policy. - Franklin
  • If winter comes, can spring be far behind? - Shelley
  • If you love life, don't waste time, for time is what life is made up of. - Bruce Lee
  • Knowledge is power. - J.M. Clark
  • Life is a flower of which love is honey. - Victor Hugo
  • Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance, you must keep moving. - Albert Einstein
  • Machines were made to be man's servant but they have become his master. - Joad
  • Men are what their mothers made them. - Emerson
  • One child, one teacher, one book and one pen can change the world. - Malala Yousafzai‬
  • One should eat to live, not live to eat. - Franklin
  • Our sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest thoughts. - Shelley
  • Politeness is the flower of humanity. - Joseph Joubert
  • Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man and writing an exact man. - Bacon
  • Science is an angel in peace but devil in war. - Prof. Hardy
  • Sympathy is the golden key that unlocks the heart of others. - Samuel Smiles
  • Some are born great, some achieve greatness and some have greatness thrust upon them. - Shakespeare
  • Speech is great, but silence is greater. - Carlyle
  • That man never grows old who keeps a child in his heart. -Steele
  • They also serve who only stand and wait. - Milton
  • There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so. Shakespeare
  • Talkers are not good doers. - Shakespeare
  • The more we study, the more we discover our ignorance. - Shelley
  • To be prepared for war is one of the most effective means of preserving peace - Washington
  • Where ignorance is bliss, 'tis folly to be wise. - Gray
  • Your mind is a garden, your thoughts are the seeds, the harvest can be either flowers or weeds. - William Wordsworth
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Cries of Animals and Birds (पशु-पक्षियों की बोलियाँ)

An ape (लंगूर) gibbers
An ass (गधा) brays
A bear (रीछ) grawls
A bee (मधुमक्खी) hums
A bird (चिड़िया) sings, twitters or chirps
A bull (बैल) bellows
A calf (बछड़ा) bleats
A camel (ऊॅट) grums
A cock (मुर्गा) crows
A cat (बिल्ली) mews

A cow (गाय) lows
A crow (कौआ) caws
A cricket (झींगुर) chirps
The cattle (चौपाये) low
A dove (फाख्ता) coos
A dog (कुत्ता) yelps, barks, howls
A duck (बतख) quacks
An elephant (हाथी) trumpets
An eagle (चील) screams
A fly (मक्खी) buzzes
A fox (लोमड़ी) yelps
A frog (मेंढक) croaks
A goat (बकरा) bleats
A goose (हंस) gabbles, cackles, hisses
A horse (घोड़ा) neighs
A hawk (बाज) screams
A hen (मुर्गी) cackles, clucks
A hound (शिकारी कुत्ता) bays
A jackal (सियार) howl
A lark (लावा चिड़िया) warbles
A lamb (मेमना) bleats
A lion (शेर) roars
A mouse (चूहा) squeaks
A monkey (बन्दर) chatters
A nightingale (बुलबुल) sings, warbles
A pigeon  (कबूतर) coos
A parrot (तोता) talks
A puppy (पिल्ला) yelps
A pig (सूअर) grunts
A snake (सर्प) hisses
A sheep (भेड़) bleats
A sparrow (गौरेया) chirps or twitters
A swan (राजहंस) cries
A squirrel (गिलहरी) squeaks
A tiger (चीता) growls, roars
 A vulture (गिद्ध) screams
A wolf (भेड़िया) howls