May 2016
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Government investment in the arts, such as music and theatre, is a waste of money. The government must invest this money in public services instead.

To what extent do you agree with this statement?

Government’s plan of developing theatres to promote art and music is questioned by many who consider these funds should be allocated for the social services. This however could be a valuable point raised by people but investment in only the social services cannot justify the role of government. There are several other things to be considered important for a nation to maintain its dignity and culture, and art or music is one of them.

Art and music in most of the countries symbolizes their culture for an instance the classical music in India refers to its vivid existence. The government has two basic functions in terms of development, that are firstly to make modern infrastructure and secondly restoration of existing monuments. Some of this existing building built for art reveals the tradition of its nations over a period of time. Building new theatres for the purpose of art and culture is the need to restore its cultural and historical heritage. Promoting art and musical remarkably reflects the distinct identity of any country. There is nothing more interesting to learn about the past, in general, other than music and art.

Furthermore, artistically it is quiet easy for the mass to develop personally. Not only the history but music and art are the reflection of the present and perhaps that’s the reason behind so diversified music coming from various cultures and nations. The France for instance is renowned for symphonies however harmonies could be considered prominently core of music in England.

To put this in one thought, I strongly believe that the government’s effort to enhance art and music either by constructing new theatres or not is more crucial than focusing on investment in social service at the stake of art and culture.

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Use of 'May'
May का अर्थ सकना होता है और इसका प्रयोग Present Tense में होता है । इसके प्रयोग निम्नलिखित हैं :
'May' is used in Present Tense and uses of May are given below:

(a) अनुमति (Permission) के लिए :
1. क्या मैं अन्दर आ सकता हुँ? 
May I come in?
2. क्या हम कल मिल सकते हैं?
Can we meet tomorrow?

(b) सम्भावना (Possibility) के लिए :
1. वह आज आ सकती है ।
She may come today.
2. आज वर्षा हो सकती है ।
It may rain today.

(c) शुभकामना (Wish) के लिए :
1. भगवान तुम्हारे पति की रक्षा करे!
May God protect your husband!
2. ईश्वर तुमको सफलता प्रदान करे!
May God grant you success!

(d) उद्देश्य (Purpose) या शर्त वाले वाक्यों (Conditional Sentences) में so that के साथ Present Tense में :
1. मैं परिश्रम करता हुँ ताकि मैं अपनी जीविका कमा सकू ।
I work so that I may earn my livelihood.
2. वह कठिन परिश्रम करती है ताकि परीक्षा में अच्छे अंक ला सके ।
She works hard so that she may get good marks in the exam.

Use of 'Might'
यह May का Past Tense है इसका अर्थ 'सका', 'सका था' होता है और इसके प्रयोग निम्नलिखित हैं :
'Might' is a Past Tense of 'May' and uses of might are given below :

(a) अनुमति (Permission) के लिए :
1. He asked if he might meet her the next day.
2. She told me that I might use her car.

(b) सम्भावना (Possibility) के लिए :
1. The teacher told us that she might see our homework. (Past Possibility)
2. Robert is a very weak student. He might fail in the exam. (Future Possibility)

(c) उद्देश्य (Purpose) के लिए :
1. She took medicine so that she might get well.
2. He studied hard so that he might get good marks.

Use of 'Can'
Can का अर्थ सकना होता है, और इसका प्रयोग Present Tense में होता है । इसके प्रयोग निम्नलिखित हैं :
'Can' is used in Present Tense and uses of Can are given below :

(a) शक्ति या सामर्थ्य (Power or Ability) के लिए :
1. वह अच्छी तरह अंग्रेज़ी भाषा बोल सकती है । 
She can speak the English language well.
2. वह आसानी से भारी सामान उठा सकता है । 
He can easily lift heavy weight.

(b) अनुमति (Permission) के लिए :
1. तुम अब इस काम को छोड़ सकती हो । 
Now you can leave this work.
2. तुम अब घर जा सकती हो । 
You can go home now.

(c) निषेध (Prohibition) के लिए :
1. तुम यहाँ पर नहीं सो सकते । 
You cannot sleep here.
2. मैं उस पर अब अधिक विश्वास नहीं कर सकती । 
I cannot believe upon her anymore.

Use of 'Could'
यह Can का Past Tense है, इसका अर्थ 'सका', 'सका था' होता है और इसके प्रयोग निम्नलिखित हैं :
Could is a Past Tense of Can and uses of could are given below :

(a) शक्ति या सामर्थ्य (Power or Ability) के लिए :
1. When she was young, she could understand French.
2. I was sorry that I could not come to your birthday party.
3. She could not pass the entrance exam test.
4. She could have caught the bus if she had hurried. (Past Possibility)

(b)  विनम्र निवेदन (Polite Request in the Present Tense) :
1. Could you lend me some money for two days?
2. Could I use your pen for a minute?
3. Could I walk with you, please?
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Fill in the blanks with one of the words given in brackets against each sentence:
  1. Let _____ go to the movie today. (we, us)
  2. I know the woman ______ child was hurt. (who, whose, whom)
  3. Take anything ______ you like. (which, that)
  4. This room is for you and  ________ . (me, myself)
  5. _______ are you asking about? (who, whom, which)
  6. Neither she nor they have brought _______ books. (her, their)
  7. _______ can I do for you? (what, which, that)
  8. He behaved in such a manner ______ I had never hoped. (that, as, which)
  9. Behind _____ and ____ were many seats. (he, him, I, me)
  10. ______ have you got in your pocket? (what, which)
  1. Kinds of Pronouns
  2. Rules of Pronoun
Lesson Plans:
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Optative Sentences (इच्छा सूचक वाक्य)
नियम 1. इस प्रकार के वाक्यों में ईश्वर से प्रार्थना या इच्छा प्रकट की जाती हैं ।
Rule 1.  In these sentences, someone prays or shows a desire to God.

नियम 2. इन वाक्यों को May से प्रारम्भ करते हैं ।
Rule 2. These sentences start with 'May'.

नियम 3. इन वाक्यों के अन्त में सम्बोधन चिन्ह (!) लगाते हैं ।
Rule 3. An exclamation mark (!) comes at the end of these sentences.

Examples :
1. ईश्वर तुमको सफलता प्रदान करे !
May God grant you success !
2. भगवान तुम्हें एक बच्चा दे !
May God bless you with a child !
3. भगवान तुम्हारे पति की रक्षा करे !
May God protect your husband !
4. ईश्वर तुम्हे लम्बी उम्र प्रदान करे !
May you live long !
5. ईश्वर इस पापी को क्षमा करे !
May God pardon this sinner !
6. ईश्वर तुम्हे साहस प्रदान करे !
May God grant you courage !

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Translation from Hindi to English
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Exclamatory Sentences (विस्मय सूचक वाक्य)
नियम 1. इन वाक्यों में प्रसन्नता, दुःख, आश्चर्य आदि भावों का बोध होता है। 
Rule 1. These sentences give an idea of happiness, sadness, surprise etc.

नियम 2. इन वाक्यों के अन्त में प्राय: सम्बोधन चिन्ह (!) लगता है । परन्तु Alas, Ah, Hurrah आदि Interjections के तुरन्त बाद सम्बोधन चिन्ह (!) लगता है ।
Rule 2. At the end of these sentences, often seems to be an Exclamation Mark(!). But an Exclamation Mark(!) is used immediately after Interjections like 'Alas', 'Ah', 'Hurrah'.

नियम 3. इन वाक्यों में कितना, कैसा के प्रयोग से अधिकता प्रकट होती है । और इन शब्दों के अनुवाद के लिए वाक्य के प्रारम्भ में what या how का प्रयोग करते है । 
Rule 3. 'How much', 'How' manifest excessiveness in the sentences. 'What' or 'How' are used in the starting of sentences for the translation of these words.

नियम 4. जब कितना के बाद adjective का प्रयोग हो तो how का प्रयोग होता है । (उदाहरण 1)
Rule 4. When an adjective is used after 'How much' then use 'How' for the translation. (Example 1)

नियम 5. जब कितना, कितनी, कितने के बाद adjective का प्रयोग तथा adjective के बाद noun का प्रयोग हो तो what a का प्रयोग होता है । (उदाहरण 2, 3)
Rule 5. When an adjective and a noun are used after 'How much', 'How many' then use 'What a' for the translation. (Examples 2, 3)

Examples :
1. वह कितनी सुन्दर है ! 
How beautiful she is !
2. तुम कितने मुर्ख लड़के हो ! 
What a stupid boy you are !
3. कितना सुन्दर स्थान है ! 
What a beautiful place it is !
4. अहा ! भारत मैच जीत गया। 
Hurrah ! India won the match.
5. हाय ! समय समाप्त हो गया । 
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Imperative Sentences (आज्ञा सूचक वाक्य)

नियम 1: Imperative Sentence से आज्ञा (order or command), प्रार्थना (request), परामर्श (advice) या किसी से कुछ करने के लिए कहने का बोध होता है ।
Rule 1:  Imperative Sentence gives an idea of order or command, request, advice or to do something by saying something to someone.

नियम 2: ऐसे वाक्यों में क्रिया से पहले कर्ता you छिपा रहता है ।
Rule 2: Subject 'you' remain hidden before the verb in these sentences.

नियम 3: ऐसे वाक्यों में क्रिया first form में होती है तथा अनुवाद करते समय उसे वाक्य के प्रारम्भ में लिखते है। (उदाहरण 1, 2 and 3)
Rule 3: In these sentences, use the first form of the verb and write it first while translating the sentence. (Examples 1, 2 and 3)

नियम 4: प्रार्थना वाले वाक्यों में 'कृपया' या 'कृपा' लगा होता है जिसका अनुवाद please से करते है । (उदाहरण 5)
Rule 4: Sentences of 'request' or 'prayer' start with 'please' while translating the sentence. (Example 5)

नियम 5: यदि वाक्य में सम्बोधन कारक का Noun है तो वह वाक्य के प्रारम्भ या अन्त में प्रयोग कर सकते है । (उदाहरण 4)
Rule 5: If there is a vocative case of a noun in the sentence then it can be used at the start or end of the sentence. (Example 4)

नियम 6: सुझाव या प्रस्ताव भाव प्रकट करने वाले वाक्यों में 'Let' का प्रयोग करते है । (उदाहरण 6)
Rule 6: 'Let' is used to express suggestions or proposals in these sentences. (Example 6)

Examples :
1. दरवाजा बंद करो ।
Shut the door.
2. मुझे अपनी पुस्तक दिखाओ ।
Show me your book.
3. अपने बड़ो का आदर करो ।
Respect your elders.
4. हितेश, यहाँ आओ ।
Hitesh, come here. or Come here, Hitesh.
5. कृपया मेरी मदद कीजिये ।
Please help me.
6. उसे स्कूल जाने दो ।
Let him go to school.

नियम 1: यदि वाक्य में 'मत' आया हो तो सबसे पहले Do not लिखते हैं । इसके साथ verb की first form लगाते हैं । (उदाहरण 1, 3)
Rule 1: Use the first form of the verb with 'Do not' in the starting of the sentence. (Example 1, 3)

नियम 2: यदि वाक्य में 'कभी मत' या 'कभी न' आया हो तो उसके लिए Never के साथ verb की first form लगाते हैं । (उदाहरण 4)
Rule 2: Use the first form of the verb with 'Never' in the starting of the sentence. (Example 4)

नियम 3: कृपया के लिए वाक्य के आरम्भ में Please लगाते हैं । (उदाहरण 2)
Rule 3: For 'request' use 'Please' in the starting of the sentence. (Example 2)

नियम 4: यदि वाक्य के अन्त में 'दो' लिखा हो तथा उससे पहले verb में ना, नी, ने लगा हो तो वाक्य को Let से शुरू करते हैं । फिर Object उसके बाद verb की first form का प्रयोग करते है  तथा वाक्य के आरम्भ में Do not लगाते है ।  (उदाहरण 5)
Rule 4: Do not + let + object + first form of verb (Example 5)

Examples :
1. पुस्तकालय में बातचीत मत करो । 
Do not talk in the library.
2. कृपया मेरे साथ मत चलिए । 
Please do not walk with me.
3. इतने जोर से मत बोलो । 
Do not speak so loudly.
4. कभी किसी को गाली मत दो । 
Never abuse anyone.
5. उसे दिन में मत सोने दो । 
Do not let her sleep in the day.

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Translation from Hindi to English