February 2017
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Possessive case का प्रयोग निम्न प्रकार से हो सकता है :
Rule 1. (A) जीवधारियों के साथ Apostrophe s ('s) लगाकर 
Examples:
(a) Ram's mother is an accountant.
(b) Sita's pencil has been lost.

Singular Noun में पहले Apostrophe mark (') और इसके बाद s लगाते है और Plural Noun में पहले s और इसके बाद Apostrophe mark लगाते है यदि उसका Plural 's' पर समाप्त हो । 
Example :
The girl's bag. (लड़की का बैग)
Girls' hostel. (लड़कियों का होस्टल)

(B) Personified object के साथ (बेजान चीजों को जानदार मानने पर)
Examples : at death's door, Nature's law, Fortune's favourite etc.

(C) कुछ phrases के साथ 
Examples : An apple of one's eye, at one's wits' end, bird's eye view, fool's paradise etc.

(D) Time, space या weight प्रकट करने वाले Nouns के साथ 
Examples : A day's march, five days' leave, a pound's weight etc.



Rule 2. जो Nouns, 'ce' या 's' से समाप्त होते हो और उनके बाद 'sake' आता हो उन Nouns में सिर्फ Apostrophe (') लगाते हैं 's' नहीं लगाते हैं । 
Examples : for justice' sake, for goodness' sake, for conscience' sake etc.

Rule 3. जब पुरुष, स्त्री और बच्चों के लिए Plural Noun हो और अन्त में 's' न लगा हो तो उसमें Apostrophe mark के साथ 's' लगाते है । 
Examples : men's party, women's room, children's library

Rule 4. जब किसी चीज में दो लोगों की साझेदारी होती है तो 's' बाद वाले Noun में लगाते है । 
Example :
Ravi and Suresh's cupboard is made of wood. (एक cupboard दोनों की है)

यदि दो लोगों की चीजें अलग-अलग होती है तो 's' दोनों Nouns में लगाते है । 
Ravi's and Suresh's cupboards are made of wood. (दो अलग-अलग cupboard)

Rule 5. Compound Nouns के अन्तिम शब्द में 's' लगाकर
Example : This is my brother-in-law's shop.

Rule 6. Double Possessive का कभी प्रयोग नहीं करते है । 
Examples :
(a) Incorrect : Seema's pen's colour is blue.
Correct : The colour of Seema's pen is blue.
(b) Incorrect : My friend's wife's mother has come.
Correct : The mother of my friend's wife has come.




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Rule 1. कुछ Nouns के एकवचन (Singular) और बहुवचन (Plural) में सामान रूप रहते हैं ।
Examples : swine, deer, sheep etc. Click here to see more examples
(a) The sheep is grazing. (यहाँ एक भेड़ है)
(b) Many sheep are grazing in the park. (यहाँ कई सारी भेड़ें हैं)


Rule 2. यदि hundred, thousand, dozen से पहले संख्या (number) होती है, तो 's' नहीं लगाते है ।
Examples :
(a) I bought four dozen bananas.
(b) My mother gave me two hundred dollars.

यदि इससे पहले संख्या (number) नहीं होती है, तो Plural बनाने के लिए 's' लगाते है तथा 'of ' का प्रयोग करते है ।
Examples :
(a) Hundreds of monkeys gathered there.
(b) Thousands of euros were spent.

Rule 3. कुछ Nouns देखने में Singular लगते हैं परन्तु meaning में Plural होते हैं ।
Examples : police, military, public etc. Click here to see more examples
(a) The police have arrested the thief.
(b) The people of Singapore are rich.

Rule 4. कुछ Nouns केवल Singular में प्रयोग होते हैं उनका Plural नहीं होता हैं ।
Examples : hair, bread, alphabet, mischief, poetry etc. Click here to see more examples
(a) The old furniture was disposed of.
(b) Her information was wrong.
उपर्युक्त शब्दों का Plural कुछ इस तरह बनाते हैं : articles of furniture, loves of bread, pieces of information etc.

Rule 5. यदि Collective Noun से समूह का बोध हो, तो Singular Verb का प्रयोग करते है और यदि अलग-अलग लोगों का बोध हो, तो Plural Verb का प्रयोग करते है ।
Examples :  Jury, Government, Committee etc.
(a) The committee was one on this point.
(b) The committee were divided on one point.

Rule 6. कुछ Nouns देखने में Plural लगते हैं परन्तु meaning में Singular होते हैं ।
Examples : Physics, news, Mathematics etc. Click here to see more examples
(a) Physics is an interesting subject.
(b) The news of his failure is not true.

Rule 7. कुछ Nouns केवल Plural में प्रयोग होते हैं ।
Examples : tongs, alms, trousers, thanks, scissors etc. Click here to see more examples
(a) Alms are given to the beggars.
(b) Her scissors were very blunt.



Rule 8. कुछ Nouns में बीमारियो के नाम जैसे - measles, mumps, rabies तथा खेलों के नाम जैसे - cards, darts, billiards, draughts, gymnastics, athletics etc. का प्रयोग Singular में ही होता हैं ।
Examples :
(a) Billiards is easier than snooker.
(b) Mumps is an infectious disease.

Rule 9. Abstract और Material Nouns का Plural नहीं बनता, ये Singular form में ही प्रयोग होते हैं ।
Examples : kindness, tin, copper, iron, wheat, milk, water, silver, gold etc.
(a) Wheat is grown in India in larger quantity.
(b) This house is made of brick and stone.

Rule 10. News papers, some countries और books के नाम देखने में Plural लगते हैं लेकिन meaning में Singular होते हैं ।
Examples :
(a) The New York Times has won more prizes than any other news organization.
(b) The United States of America has made great progress in science.
(c) Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone is a famous novel.

Rule 11. Means, Wages, Pains etc Nouns प्रयोग के अनुसार Singular या Plural होते हैं । 
Examples :
(a) Her wages are five hundred rupees per day.
(b) The wages of sin is more than death.

Rule 12. Word का Singular तथा Plural में प्रयोग :
Examples :
Singular : ('प्रतिज्ञा' या 'वचन' के अर्थ में )
She did not keep her word.
Plural : ('शब्द' के अर्थ में)
There are three words in this sentence.

Rule 13. Brother, cloth, fish का Plural में दो अलग-अलग अर्थ में प्रयोग :
Examples :
Brother :
(a) All brothers are living in peace. (brothers -  एक ही माता-पिता के पुत्र)
(b) We are all brethren. (brethren - एक ही समाज के सदस्य)

Cloth:
(a) There are various cloths in the shop. (Cloths - बिना सिले कपड़े या थान)
(b) We wear warm clothes in the winter. (Clothes - सिले हुए कपड़े या पोशाके)

Fish:
(a) I had fish in the lunch. (Fish - एक समूह में )
(b) There were five fishes in the pond. (Fishes - अलग-अलग रूप में)

Rule 14. कोई Noun किसी Compound word में Adjective का काम करें तो वह हमेशा Singular में प्रयोग होगी । 
Examples : A four-year old child, A three-mile walk, A hundred-rupee note etc.
(a) My father gave me a hundred-rupee note.



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Definition - A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing.
परिभाषा - किसी व्यक्ति, स्थान या वस्तु का बोध कराने वाले नाम को संज्ञा कहते है ।

There are mainly five types of Noun:
संज्ञा के मुख्यता पाँच प्रकार होते हैं :


1. Common Noun (जातिवाचक संज्ञा) :
A Common Noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind.
Examples: king, book, girl, boy, table, chair etc.
(a) Ravi is a foolish man.
(b) Sheela is a beautiful girl.

2. Proper Noun (व्यक्तिवाचक संज्ञा) :
A Proper Noun is the name of some particular person, place or thing.
Examples: Agra, The New York Times, Sita, Google etc.
(a) Google is a very popular search engine.
(b) Agra is one of the famous cities of India known for tourism.

3. Collective Noun (समूहवाचक/समुदायवाचक  संज्ञा) :
A Collective Noun is the name of a number of persons or things taken together and spoken as one whole.
Examples: committee, government, police, class, assembly, family etc.
(a) The committee was one on this point.
(b) Please pay my regards to your family.



4. Abstract Noun (भाववाचक संज्ञा) :
An Abstract Noun is the name of quality, action or state considered apart from the object to which it belongs.
Examples:
Quality - honesty, wisdom, bravery
Action - laughter, theft, judgement
State - childhood, youth, sleep, death
(a) The soldiers were rewarded for their bravery.
(b) We all love honesty.


5. Material Noun (द्रव्यवाचक संज्ञा) :
A Material is the name of material or substance which are used to made things.
Examples: silver, gold, iron, cotton, diamond, plastic etc.
(a) Gold is an expensive metal.
(b) Plastic is used to make containers of different shape.


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List of Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives
PositiveComparativeSuperlative
TallTallerTallest
HighHigherHighest
CheapCheaperCheapest
YoungYoungerYoungest
GreatGreaterGreatest
WiseWiserWisest
BraveBraverBravest
LargeLargerLargest
AbleAblerAblest
NobleNoblerNoblest
HappyHappierHappiest
EasyEasierEasiest
EarlyEarlierEarliest
HeavyHeavierHeaviest
BigBiggerBiggest
HotHotterHottest
ThinThinnerThinnest
Good, WellBetterBest
BadWorseWorst
LittleLessLeast
MuchMoreMost(for Quantity)
ManyMoreMost(for Number)
LateLater, LatterLatest, Last
OldOlder, elderOldest, eldest
FarFartherFarthest
BeautifulMore BeautifulMost Beautiful
DifficultMore DifficultMost Difficult
IntelligentMore IntelligentMost Intelligent



List of Degrees of Comparison of Adverbs
PositiveComparativeSuperlative
FastFasterFastest
HardHarderHardest
LongLongerLongest
SoonSoonerSoonest
NearNearerNearest
CleverlyMore CleverlyMost Cleverly
SlowlyMore SlowlyMost Slowly
EarlyEarlierEarliest
LittleLessLeast
MuchMoreMost

Also Read Interchange of Degrees of Comparison
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Following are the rules with examples of making Plurals of Singular Nouns:

Rule 1. Most of the nouns use ‘s’ to make plurals.
SingularPlural
CatCats
KeyKeys
FlowerFlowers
ClockClocks
ComputerComputers



Rule 2. Noun which ends with s, x, z, ch or sh. Add ‘es’ to make plural.
SingularPlural
BossBosses
BoxBoxes
QuizQuizzes
LunchLunches
WishWishes

(Exceptional Cases: Axis –Axes, Ox – Oxen)

Rule 3. Noun which ends with vowel and ‘y’. Add ‘s’ to make plural.
SingularPlural
GuyGuys
ToyToys
PlayPlays
EssayEssays
KeyKeys


Rule 4. Noun which ends with consonant and ‘y’. Replace ‘y’ with ‘ies’ to make plural.
SingularPlural
CityCities
FamilyFamilies
StudyStudies
FlyFlies
LadyLadies


Rule 5. Some Nouns which end with ‘o’, use ‘es’ to make plural.
SingularPlural
PotatoPotatoes
TomatoTomatoes
ZeroZeroes
HeroHeroes
EchoEchoes


Some Nouns which end with ‘o’, use ‘s’ to make plural.
SingularPlural
PhotoPhotos
PianoPianos
VideoVideos
EgoEgos
ZooZoos


Rule 6. Some Nouns which end with ‘f’ or ‘fe’. Replace ‘f’ or ‘fe’ with ‘ves’ to make plural.
SingularPlural
CalfCalves
KnifeKnives
HalfHalves
LifeLives
WifeWives


Nouns which end with ‘f’ or ‘fe’. Replace ‘f’ or ‘fe’ with ‘s’ to make plural.
SingularPlural
ChefChefs
CliffCliffs
SafeSafes
ProofProofs
DwarfDwarfs


Rule 7. Some Irregular Nouns:
SingularPlural
PersonPeople
ChildChildren
FootFeet
ToothTeeth
GooseGeese
MouseMice
ManMen
WomanWomen
ThatThose
ThisThese
LouseLice


Rule 8. Nouns whose Singular and Plural form remains same.
SingularPlural
FishFish (Collectively), Fishes (taken separately)
Examples:
(Collectively) The sea abounds in fish.
(Taken separately) There are twenty fishes in the basket.


SingularPlural
AdviceAdvice
TunaTuna
SheepSheep
DeerDeer
SalmonSalmon
SilverSilver
GoldGold
MachineryMachinery
LuckLuck
MusicMusic
JewelryJewelry
LuggageLuggage
HairHair
InformationInformation
SceneryScenery
PoetryPoetry

Examples:
(a) The scenery of Switzerland is beautiful.
(b) His hair has turned grey.
(c) He bought new machinery.

Rule 9. Some Nouns look Singular but are Plural.
People, Cattle, Poultry, Vermin, Gentry, Police, Military, Public etc.
Examples:
(a) Cattle are grazing in the field.
(b) The police have arrested the thief.

Rule 10. Some Nouns look plural but are used as singular.
Civics, Economics, Physics, news, Mechanics, Mathematics, innings etc.
Example:
Physics is a difficult subject.

Rule 11. Some Nouns which are only used as Plurals.
thanks, riches, alms, tongs, spectacles, scissors, trousers, spirits, scissors, trousers etc.
Example:
Her spectacles are very beautiful.

Rule 12. Compound Nouns:
SingularPlural
Daughter-in-law Daughters-in-law
Post office Post offices
Inspector-GeneralInspectors-General
Man-of-warMen-of-war
Step-daughterStep-daughters
Passer-byPassers-by
Commander-in-chiefCommanders-in-chief
Brother-in-lawBrothers-in-law
Son-in-lawSons-in-law
Looker-onLookers-on