January 2020
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"The film industry has become a universal medium exercising a profound influence on the development of people's attitudes and choices, and possessing a remarkable ability to influence public opinion and culture across all social and political frontiers." - Pope John Paul II

In today's time, hardly anyone who does not watch cinema. So it influences today’s society massively. Most of the stories in movies are a reflection of society and the way cinema is made real on-screen, it affects people. It is the cheapest and most popular form of amusement. In big cities, there are many theaters where people are crowded to watch the first show on the first day of the cinema.

The cinema is an important means of recreation. People of every age group are equally interested in watching films. After hard work in the day, a good movie removes our dullness. There are different categories of movies that fulfill different purposes. It can be based on education, social awareness, culture, publicity, and propaganda.

The cinema is a medium of effective education. Education has gone beyond the traditional methods of teaching. Students feel boring while learning from textbooks while visual learning is attention-seeking and interesting. There are still many challenges to accept this everywhere. Many parents still take it as an inadequate form of teaching. Most teachers are even not compatible with this way of teaching or require strenuous efforts. So proper training should be provided to the teachers to make them capable enough to utilize their skills.

The cinema has a powerful impact on society. Other than being a great source of entertainment, it plays a significant role to deliver social messages and urgent issues of society. These can greatly help to uproot social problems. It also plays a dark role in society by exposing sexual violence, crime, creating a dream world rather than facing actual problems. From movies, people learn new methods of committing the crime. The criminal films make an adverse effect on the young and undeveloped minds. Children and youth try to mimic whatever they see in the cinema.

The cinema is also an important means of publicity and propaganda. We are living in the age of science. There is rapid progress in trade and industry. Much of the development work in the country is shown by the cinema. On the other side, it is also used to divert the audience for personal, political and business purposes.

The cinema has its pros and cons. So it is up to us what we learn and adapt from it. The standard of Indian film is generally low. Modern films ignore high ideals and corrupt our taste. Every effort should be made to improve the quality of films.

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"Sport is friendship; sport is health; sport is education; sport is life; sport brings the world together." - Juan Antonio Samaranch
"All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy" is a proverb. It means if a person only works and not play then the person will become bored. So playing in life is as important as working to keep body and mind fit for a happy and successful life. The development of the body is as important as that of mind. Game and sports are the food for the body, as knowledge is food for the mind, and religion for the soul.

Games and sports are very useful for our health. There is another proverb, "Health is wealth", and we can get this wealth by staying free from diseases, and for this, we should do both physical and mental exercises in the form of games. Sports freshen the mind and energize the body. Which keeps us more active to do our daily work.

Games and sports develop a sense of discipline among the students. A disciplined team wins the game. The players abide by the rules of the games and the judgment of the referee. This teaches the players the importance of rules and regulations in life. Therefore sportsmen are generally found more disciplined persons than others.

This develops the spirit of sportsmanship. It means fair play and no favour/favor. The players play with team spirit. Thus they learn the need of co-operation for success. With this quality, sportsmen prove to be good citizens in life. They develop a feeling of community life and self-sacrificing nature within themselves.

Some students neglect games thinking them meaningless and a source of wastage of time. They are wrong because after playing games, we regain our lost energy and we study with greater interest. Therefore, sports should be a compulsory subject for students in every educational institution.

Games and sports must have a high value in our life. To live a healthy life, we should take part in sports. It removes the dullness and keeps us cheerful. We cannot do any work if our health is poor. It is very discouraging that our players win very few gold medals at the Olympic Games. The government should frame a national policy in this regard. Sportsmen are the pride of our nation. Our government should help the athletes financially and technically so that they can ignite their interest in sports.

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Every year on 26th January we celebrate Republic Day as a national holiday. On this day, the constitution of India came into effect. This day we celebrate and honour/honor our nation. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was the chairman of the constitution drafting committee who drafted the first constitution of independent India. As a Republic nation, the citizens of India have the right to elect candidates by voting who work for the betterment of the country and its people.

This day has a special meaning for all the people of the country. It is a day of great joy, honour/honor, sacrifice and pride. It reminds us of the sacrifice and suffering that the freedom fighters had to undergo for winning freedom from the British regime. Many freedom fighters like Bhagat Singh, Sardar Ballabh Bhai Patel, Mahatama Gandhi, Subash Chandra Bose filled the sense of patriotism into the heart of the Indian people. The whole country was in the revolution against British rule. Finally, India got freedom on 15th August 1947.

On this day, a grand parade is held in the national capital, New Delhi, at the Rajpath before the President of India. The national flag of India unfurls by the President of India. In every state, the Governor of the state unfurls the national flag. Due respect is shown to the flag by way of military and mass salute. Schools, colleges, offices are decorated with tricolor flags, balloons and kites. The national flag is hoisted on all the government and private buildings of the country. On this day, after hoisting the national flag in schools, all teachers and students sing patriotic songs "Jan Gan Man" and "Vande Mataram". Students deliver republic day speech and perform a cultural dance. Sweets are distributed in schools after the celebration.

It is a memorable day for the Indians. It brings us the message that we should forget our internal differences and we should unite against problems like corruption, terrorism, unemployment, inequality, capitalism etc. In the words of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, "Our nation is like a tree of which the original trunk is swarajya and the branches are swadeshi and boycott. Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it."

सुजलां सुफलां मलयजशीतलाम् शस्य श्यामलां मातरं । वन्दे मातरम्
Sujalam suphalam malayaja sheetalam shasyashyaamalam maataram, vande maataram

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According to Newton's third law "For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction." So Science can be a blessing and a curse at the same time. Science can be the greatest of the blessings and the worst of the curses. We blame science. In fact, we should blame ourselves. It is a blessing if we use it as a servant and It is a curse if we make it our master.

Science has helped us in conquering time and distance. Cars, Trains, Ships, airplanes take us quickly and comfortably from one place to another place in less time. A person can swim in the ocean or underwater like a fish and fly in the air like a bird. When science becomes our master, it is very destructive and we use fighter planes, warships, submarines to drop bombs on innocent people and destroy our beautiful nature.

Science has achieved tremendous success in the field of telecommunications. We can now connect with anyone in the world by voice and video calling using smartphones in our hands. There are many services which benefit us by installing simple applications on our mobiles. Wireless, internet, satellites and spacecraft have not been less than a boon in our life. But on the other side, the radiation emitted from cell phone towers have a very bad effect on our health. We are also littering the earth's outer space with the debris of satellites and rockets.

Science has also done wonders in the field of medicine. Many fatal diseases can be cured with the help of technology and new medicines. But it also has its darker side, these medicines cause reactions and give birth to many unknown diseases.

We invented machines to be our servants but we have become so dependent on them that we have become their slaves. Lifts take us to the top of the building in no time. Cranes lift up huge weights. Machines plough fields, sow seeds and reap the harvest. There are machines that do the work of hundreds or thousands of people. Machines have given birth to capitalism. Machines and factories have thrown many laborers and craftsmen out of employment.

Science has given us an atom bomb which is a destructive weapon of war. The fearful picture of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and that of the Gulf war is before us. Nuclear weapons can destroy everything in a moment that takes centuries to build.

Science has destroyed our faith in God. It has made us materialistic. We have forgotten human values. Our God is only money. Thus we see that science has given us immense power and brought both Heaven and Hell to our world. It is up to us what we choose for our place of living. Finally, in the words of C. E. M. Joad, "Science has given us powers fit for the gods, yet we use them like small children."

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"If we do not voluntarily bring population growth under control in the next one or two decades, nature will do it for us in the most brutal way, whether we like it or not." - Henry W. Kendall

The most pressing problem before our country at present is the problem of the rapid population increase. China is the first in the highest population in the world. Next comes India. Every year we have a new Australia added in our population. If this problem is not solved, then we cannot live a happy, healthy and prosperous life.

The effect of overpopulation is felt everywhere. The trains are overcrowded. The land in villages is divided and further divided. The number of unemployed persons is increasing day by day. Forests are disappearing. The housing problem is growing serious day by day. Overpopulation increases the persons below the poverty line and with inadequate knowledge of controlling population explosion they contribute more in the birth rate.

There are many causes of this problem. India is a hot country. So naturally, we have a high birth rate. Due to better medical facilities death rate has fallen. Our social customs are also responsible to make this problem serious. A childless person or an unmarried man is not respected anywhere. In villages, marriages are arranged at an early age and a widower with children marries again. The illiteracy of women is also a big cause of population growth.

There is an urgent need to check population growth. For this family planning is the only remedy, Family planning or welfare means keeping under control the number of children in the family. Planned family is the need of an hour. We should keep this in mind that the less the children, the better they will be looked after and better and happier will their life be.

There are different ways by which we can control the population explosion. The government should implement family planning and birth control campaigns. The minimum age of marriage should be raised. Education for women should be supportive and free. More doors should be open to women's employment. Some married couples do not have any child even after costly fertility treatment. So they can adopt orphan children. A person should not be socially pressurized for marriage and child.

Our government has taken some steps to control this serious issue but that is not enough to prevent this problem. If the government and people make an effort then this problem can be resolved. In John D. Rockefeller's words, "The population problem must be recognized by the government as a principal element in long-range planning."

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"The cost of a thing is the amount of what I will call life which is required to be exchanged for it, immediately or in the long run." ― Henry David Thoreau, Walden

The problem of price-rise is one of the serious things today. It is very common these days that the prices of essential commodities are going high day by day. The problem of price-rise has become very serious that the government is unable to control the prices of necessary goods. Even the rise in prices is very natural in the fastest growing country like India. But when it is out of control, it causes great difficulties for the masses. If the problem is not tackled in a proper way, it may take a serious turn.

There are many causes responsible for high prices. Such a rise in prices might be due to natural calamities like floods, earthquakes, famine and pandemic disease. The other reasons for soaring prices may be Inflation, bribery, corruption, black marketing, hoarding, smuggling, profiteering and many other anti-national and anti-social tendencies. Overpopulation is also one of its major causes. People buy more things than they actually need. Price-rise is also the mentality of the people who want to become a millionaire in a night.

High prices have a very bad effect on people. These rising prices increase the cost of living. It is deplorable that a small group of businessmen earns a lot of money by unfair means of hoarding essential goods. For this tendency, a vast majority of people have to suffer untold hardships. If the present position continues, The middle-class people will not be able to maintain their position in society.

The government is aware of this problem. It is trying to increase the production of essential goods and also trying to distribute them in a fair and effective way. Hoarders and black-marketeers should be severely punished. The growth of the population should be checked. The public sector should be encouraged. The government should take over the trade of essential goods.

It is the duty of the government to find out new ways to increase production and should maintain a balance between demand and supply. Also without the support of people, the government alone could not solve this problem so it is not only the government's duty but also our responsibility to support the government.

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Afforestation means planting trees in the wastelands to create forests. Forests are the natural wealth of a country. We have been cutting trees freely for plywood and other needs. As a result of its beautiful hill stations have been robbed of their attraction. The contractor's ax and our greed are killing our forests. The pressure of population, urbanization, agriculture land, railways and roadways have caused great deforestation.

Oxygen is the prime need of our life. We inhale oxygen when we breathe and exhale carbon-di-oxide. Trees take it and convert it into oxygen again. So the cycle continues. Trees also cause proper rain. They prevent the soil from being washed away by heavy rain. Forests help to prevent global warming and reduce pollution. We get food, fruits, timber and medicines from forests. Paper, match and rubber industries are dependent on forests. They give cool shade to rest in the hot season. They give shelter to wild animals like tigers, lions, bears and many more.

The Wildlife Protection Act passed in 1972 by the parliament of India for the protection of plants and animals. The Forest Conservation Act passed by the Parliament of India in 1980 for the conservation of forests and to prevent the deforestation of the forests. The act is about the restriction on the State Government for use of forest land for non-forest purposes.

National Wasteland Development Board was established in 1985 under the Ministry of Forests and Environment mainly to tackle the problem of degradation of lands, restoration of ecology and to meet the growing demands of fuelwood and fodder at the national level. Gas can be distributed to persons as a substitute for fuel. People must avoid the use of printing paper and recycle waste paper.

Using agroforestry, we can plant trees along with the agricultural crops. New trees can be planted in the empty space in old forests. Every person must plant a tree or adopt a tree. There are many campaigns run online by non-profit organizations which collect fund online to plant trees.

Afforestation must be one of our main aims. It is the duty of the government and the people to preserve the forest wealth. Van Mahotsav(forest festival) in India celebrated annually to encourage people for afforestation and it also raises awareness about the need for planting trees.

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The term "Wild Life" means the untamed and undomesticated animals like tigers, lions, leopards and many more living a free life in forests, Valleys or hills. Preservation of wildlife is the grounded approach to protect or rescue endangered wild species and their habitats in order to prevent their extinction. In other words, it forms a part of the animal wealth of a country.

Man has hunted wild animals for food, for adventure and for the greed of money. This has resulted in the disappearance of many species of wildlife. Man kills tigers, lions, snakes, deer, crocodiles for their skin and elephants for their tusks. The greed has increased so much that many species are extinct. People use animals as an object of entertainment in circuses where animals are abused and exploited in a variety of form to amuse humans. Deforestation is also a cause of the disappearance of wild animals.

Efforts were made to preserve wildlife. Wild Life Protection Act was passed in 1972 in India. It provides protection to the wild species of animals, birds, and plants which are facing the danger of disappearance. Two of the largest non-government conservation organizations like the Bombay Natural History Society(BNHS) and the World Wild Fund for Nature(WWF) India is also doing praiseworthy work in this field.

It is with the aim of preserving wildlife many sanctuaries have been established in India. Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh is an ideal home for wild animals like tigers, jackals, barasingha(swamp deer). Gir National Park in Gujarat was established to protect lions, antelopes, and leopards. Jim Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand, Dudhwa National Park in Uttar Pradesh, Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary in Rajasthan, Raiganj Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal are some of these examples.

Wildlife must need to be preserved because some wild animals work as natural scavengers. They keep the environment free from pollution. Some of these animals are sources of drugs like insulin and anti-venom. The sanctuaries are the source of great income because tourists from within and outside the country are instinctively attracted to them.

Wild animals and birds are highly useful to mankind. Their disappearance will create a void in nature. Wildlife Week is celebrated every year in the first week of October in India to promote the preservation of wildlife so that the coming generations will be able to see these species. Every year World Wildlife Day is celebrated and raises awareness of the world's wild fauna and flora. In short, we should save the wildlife, the glory of our country from extinction.

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