In Synthesis, combination of two or more than two Simple Sentences form a new Simple, Complex or Compound Sentence.
Synthesis में दो या दो से अधिक Simple Sentences को मिलाकर एक नया Simple, Complex या Compound Sentence बनाया जाता है ।


Synthesis निम्नलिखित प्रकार की होती है : (Types of Synthesis)
A) Combination of Simple Sentences into one Simple Sentence. (कई प्रकार के वाक्यों को मिलाकर एक साधारण वाक्य बनाना)
B) Combination of Simple Sentences into one Complex Sentence. (कई प्रकार के वाक्यों को मिलाकर एक मिश्रित वाक्य बनाना)
C) Combination of Simple Sentences into one Compound Sentence. (कई प्रकार के वाक्यों को मिलाकर एक संयुक्त वाक्य बनाना)


A. Formation of Simple Sentences
To form a Simple Sentence by combining two or more than two Simple Sentences.
दो या दो से अधिक Simple Sentences को मिलाकर एक Simple Sentence बनाना । 

Rule 1. Participle का प्रयोग करके : (By using Participle)
ऐसे Verbs जो Verb तथा Adjective दोनों का काम करे Participle कहलाते हैं । 
a) Participle से Simple Sentence तब बनाया जाता है जब विभिन्न Simple वाक्यों का Subject एक ही होता है लेकिन Finite Verbs अलग होते है । 
b) यदि अलग-अलग वाक्यों में अलग-अलग Subject आये तो यह नियम लागू नहीं होता । 
c) जो काम पहले हुआ है उसको दिखाने वाले Finite Verb को Participle में बदल देते है तथा जो काम अन्त में हो उसे Finite रहने देते है । 

Participle तीन प्रकार के होते हैं । There are three types of Participle.
i) Present Participle : यह Verb के अन्त में ing लगाने से बनता है । हिंदी में इसका अर्थ 'हुए' या 'करके' होता है । इसमें दो काम साथ-साथ चलते हैं और ज्यादातर दूसरा काम पहले काम का फल होता है । 
Examples :
a) Separate - She was tired of walking. She lay down to take rest.
Combined - Being tired of walking, she lay down to take rest.
b) Separate - She saw a snake. She ran away with fear.
Combined - Seeing a snake, she ran away with fear.
c) Separate - He reached home. He took off his clothes.
Combined - Reaching home, he took off his clothes.

अगर Present Participle का सम्बन्ध वाक्य के Object से हो तो उसे Object के बाद रखते हैं ।
Separate - I saw Sam. He was abusing his neighbour.
Combined - I saw Sam abusing his neighbour.

ii) Past Participle : यह verb की third form होती है और इसका प्रयोग Adjective के रूप में होता है ।
Example :
Separate - I found my Shirt. It was lost.
Combined - I found my lost Shirt.

iii) Perfect Participle : इसमें Having के साथ Verb की Third Form का प्रयोग करते है । जो Verb काम का समाप्त होना दिखाती है उसकी Perfect Participle बनाते है ।
Separate -  She had completed her task. She went to the Shopping mall.
Combined - Having completed her task, she went to the Shopping mall.
यदि वाक्य Passive Voice में है तो उसे Passive Form में ही बदलकर Participle बनाते है ।
Separate - She was awarded by her teacher. She felt happy.
Combined - Having been awarded by her teacher, she felt happy.

Rule 2. Infinitive का प्रयोग करके (By using Infinitive)
Verb में to जोड़कर Infinitive बनाते हैं । उद्देश्य या फल दिखाने वाली Finite Verb को Infinitive में बदलते है ।
a) Separate - Rohit ran fast. He wanted to get first prize.
Combined - Rohit ran fast to get first prize.
b) Separate - Raj went to Delhi. He went there to see his sister.
Combined - Raj went to Delhi to see his sister.
c) Separate - He wanted to educate his son. He sent him to America.
Combined - He sent his son to America to educate.
d) Separate - I have some duties. I must perform them.
Combined - I have some duties to perform.
e) Separate - I went to the station. My Objective was to see off my sister.
Combined - I went to the station to see off my sister.

Rule 3. Nominative Absolute का प्रयोग करके (By using Nominative Absolute)
Nominative Absolute उस कर्ता (Nominative) को कहते है जो वाक्य में स्वतंत्र (Absolute) रहता है ।
इसका प्रयोग तब होता है जब प्रत्येक वाक्य का Subject एक ही न होकर अलग-अलग होते है और दोनों वाक्यों के बीच एक प्रकार का causal relation (कारण और उसके परिणाम का सम्बन्ध) होता है ।
जब वाक्य में is,are,am,was,were का प्रयोग सहायक क्रिया (helping verb) के रूप में नहीं होता है तो Subject के बाद being का प्रयोग होता है ।
Subject के बाद having का प्रयोग Active Voice में करते है ।
Subject के बाद having been का प्रयोग Passive Voice में करते है ।
Examples :
a) Separate - The sky is cloudy. It may rain today.
Combined - The sky being cloudy, it may rain today.
b) Separate - The teacher entered the class. The boys became silent.
Combined - The teacher having entered, the boys became silent.
c) Separate - The sun rose. The birds began to fly.
Combined - The sun having risen, the birds began to fly.
d) Separate - The work was done. We went back home.
Combined - The work having been done, we went back home.
e) Separate - The bank was closed. I could not withdraw any money.
Combined - The bank having been closed, I could not withdraw any money.

Rule 4. Gerund या Noun से पहले Preposition का प्रयोग करके (Using Preposition before Gerund or Noun)
Gerund बनाने के लिए Verb की first form में ing लगाते है । 
Examples :
a) Separate - Reena bought a pencil. She gave ten rupees for it.
Combined - Reena bought a pencil for ten rupees.
b) Separate - I gave him a pen. I also supplied him with paper.
Combined - Besides giving him a pen, I also supplied him with paper.
c) Separate - I made my best efforts. I could not pass B.Com.
Combined - In spite of my best efforts, I could not pass B.Com.
d) Separate - His wife died. He heard the news. He fainted.
Combined - On hearing the news of his wife death, he fainted.
e) Separate -  You helped me. I would have failed.
Combined - I would have failed without your help.

Rule 5. Noun या Phrase in Apposition का प्रयोग करके (By using Noun or Phrase in Apposition)
Apposition का अर्थ है 'side by side' और इसलिए किसी Noun या Phrase को उस Noun के बगल में रखा जाता है जिसकी व्याख्या की जाती है । जो Noun या Phrase, Apposition में होता है उसे दो commas के बीच रखते है ।
Examples :
a) Separate -  Columbus was a famous sailor. He was an Italian. He discovered America.
Combined - Columbus, a famous Italian sailor, discovered America.
b) Separate -  Kalidas wrote the Shakuntlam. He was a great poet and dramatist.
Combined - Kalidas, a great poet and dramatist, wrote the Shakuntlam.
c) Separate -  My sister went to New Delhi. New Delhi is the capital of India.
Combined - My sister went to New Delhi, the capital of India.
d) Separate -  Milton was a famous English poet. He was blind.
Combined - Milton, a famous English poet, was blind.
e) Separate -  Tagore was the author of the Gitanjali. He was a great poet of Bengal.
Combined - Tagore, a great poet of Bengal, was the author of the Gitanjali.

Rule 6. Adverb या Adverbial Phrase का प्रयोग करके (Using Adverb or Adverbial Phrase)
Adverb, generally 'ly' का प्रयोग करके बनता है और यदि एक वाक्य के कुछ शब्द मिलकर Adverb का काम करते है तब उसे Adverbial Phrase कहते है ।
Examples :
a) Separate -  He was attending the function. It was regular.
Combined - He was attending the function regularly.
b) Separate -  He failed. It was unfortunate.
Combined - He failed unfortunately.
c) Separate -  She did her work. She was careful about it.
Combined - She did her work carefully.

Rule 7. Adjective का प्रयोग करके (By using Adjective)
a) Separate -  I bought a dog. It was black.
Combined - I bought a black dog.
b) Separate -  I met a woman. She was poor.
Combined - I met a poor woman.
c) Separate -  A tiger was hungry. He killed a bullock. The bullock was hefty.
Combined - A hungry tiger killed a hefty bullock.

Rule 8. Conjunction 'And' का प्रयोग करके (Using Conjunction 'And')
a) Separate -  I take milk. I take biscuits also.
Combined - I take milk and biscuits.
b) Separate -  Rohan went to Agra. Sohan also went with Rohan.
Combined - Rohan and Sohan went to Agra.
c) Separate -  Manisha saw the Taj. She saw the Red Fort also.
Combined - Manisha saw the Taj and the Red Fort.


Synthesis of Sentences

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