June 2017
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Rule 1. Adverb को जितना सम्भव हो सके उस शब्द के पास रखना चाहिए जिसको वह modify करता है, नहीं तो उसका अर्थ बदल जाता है |
Examples : 
Mohan has also decided to visit the Taj Mahal.
Mohan has decided to visit the Taj Mahal also.

Rule 2.  जब कोई Adverb किसी Intransitive Verb (अकर्मक क्रिया) को modify करता है तो वह ठीक उसके बाद प्रयोग किया जाता है |
Examples :
(a) She lives peacefully.
(b) Her mother lives there.


Rule 3. जब कोई Transitive Verb (सकर्मक क्रिया) अपने object के साथ आता है तो Adverb, object के बाद प्रयोग करते है |
Example : She did her task carefully.

Rule 4. जब किसी वाक्य में Auxiliary verb (सहायक क्रिया) और Principal verb (मुख्य क्रिया) दोनों आते हो तो Adverb दोनों के बीच में आता है |
Example : 
(a) She will surely get good marks.
(b) I have certainly helped her.

Rule 5. always, ever, frequently, never, often, seldom, sometimes आदि Adverbs of time उन verbs से पहले प्रयोग होते हैं जिनको वो modify करते हैं | (See examples a and b)
यदि वाक्य में verb to be (is, are, am, was, were) का प्रयोग हो तो Adverbs of time उसके बाद प्रयोग करते हैं | (See examples c and d)
Examples :
(a) She always speaks the truth.
(b) He often comes to school late.
(c) She is never late.
(d) I am always happy.


Rule 6. जब कोई Adverb किसी Adjective या दूसरे Adverb को modify करता हैं तो वह Adverb उनके ठीक पहले प्रयोग होता है | 
Example : The man was quite rich.

Rule 7. Adverb 'enough' हमेशा उस Adjective या Adverb के बाद प्रयोग होता है जिसको वह modify करता है | 
Example : He is rich enough to buy a car.

Rule 8. very का प्रयोग Positive degree के Adjective तथा Adverb के साथ होता है | 
Examples : very intelligent, very interesting, very good, very insulting etc.
(a) The film is very interesting.
(b) I love her very dearly.

Rule 9. कभी-कभी much का प्रयोग Comparative degree के Adjective के साथ है | 
Examples : much better, much surprised, much pleased etc.
(a) Sita is much better than Geeta.
(b) Sarthak is much superior to the other boy.

Rule 10. Adverb 'too' का अर्थ जरूरत से ज्यादा होता है | too को very के अर्थ में प्रयोग नहीं करना चाहिए | 
Examples :
(a) Incorrect : The wind is very cold.
Correct : The wind is too cold.
(b) Incorrect : The girl is too beautiful.
Correct : The girl is very beautiful.


EXERCISE
Fill in the blanks with correct adverbs or adverb phrases given in brackets:
(a) .............. we .......... play cricket.       (often, on Sundays)
(b) This boy ........... speaks .............     (with great confidence, always)
(c) ............ she called on me ............    (last Sunday, at 7 o' clock)
(d) I found her weeping .......... ..........    (bitterly, in her room)
(e) She was ......... convinced ............    (at that moment, fully)
(f) She is ......... afraid ...........                 (of darkness, much)
(g) Riya ........... remained ..............        (generally, happy)
(h) ............ he acts ..................               (bravely, on such occasions)
(i) I have ....... met the landlord .......       (in his office, just)
(j) I have left my keys ................             (in the library, somewhere)


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Definition : Those words which modifies the meaning of an Adjective, verb or other Adverb are called Adverb.
परिभाषा : संज्ञा, सर्वनाम को छोड़कर विशेषण, क्रिया या किसी क्रिया विशेषण की विशेषता बताने वाले शब्द क्रिया विशेषण कहलाते है |


Following are the main types of the Adverbs. Underlined words in sentences are Adverbs.
1. Simple Adverb (सरल क्रिया विशेषण) : Following are the types of Simple Adverb.

(i) Adverb of Time (कालवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of when something happened, happening or going to happen are called Adverbs of Time.
Examples : early, daily, now, lately, never, soon, recently, always, sometimes etc. 
(a) She went early.
(b) He walks daily.

(ii) Adverb of Place (स्थानवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of where something happened, happening or going to happen are called Adverbs of Place.
Examples : here, away, above, below, everywhere, out, in, there etc.
(a) Come here.
(b) She went away.

(iii) Adverb of Number or Frequency (बारम्बारता वाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of how often something happened, happening or going to happen are called Adverbs of Number or Frequency.
Examples : again, always, each day, everyday, daily, twice, never, always, often etc.
(a) She has come again.
(b) You should always speak the truth.

(iv) Adverb of Manner (रीतिवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of how something happened, happening or going to happen are called Adverbs of Manner.
Examples : fast, hard, well, clearly, slowly, quickly, sadly, loudly etc.
(a) She runs fast.
(b) He reads clearly.

(v) Adverb of Degree or Quantity (मात्रावाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of how much or to which extent something happened, happening or going to happen are called Adverbs of Degree or Quantity.
Examples : quite, too, nearly, almost, much, hardly etc.
(a) She is quite strong.
(b) She is too weak to walk.



(vi) Adverb of Reason (कारणवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of cause or intention of something are called Adverbs of Reason.
Examples : therefore, hence, thus, so, because, as, since, that etc.
(a) He therefore lost the chance.
(b) She ran so dog barked on her.

(vii) Adverb of Affirmation (स्वीकृतिवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of confirmation or acceptance of something are called Adverbs of Affirmation.
Examples : yes, surely, certainly, truly, undoubtedly, clearly, exactly, affirmatively, obviously etc.
(a) Surely, she is rich.
(b) Yes, I will do my work.

(viii) Adverb of Negation (अस्वीकृतिवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which gives information of disapproval or rejection of something are called Adverbs of Negation.
Examples : not, no, never, hardly, almost, rarely, scarcely, barely, seldom, rare etc.
(a) I do not know him.
(b) No, she is still here.

2. Interrogative Adverb (प्रश्नवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which use first in sentences and ask questions are called Interrogative Adverbs.
Examples : why, when, where, how etc.
(a) Where do you live ?
(b) How are you ?

3. Relative Adverb (सम्बन्धवाचक क्रिया विशेषण) : Those words, which connect two sentences and modify the verb of sentences come after those words are called Relative Adverbs.
Examples : when, where, why etc.
(a) This is the place where I live.
(b) I know the time when he will come.



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Rule 1. Verb अपने subject के number और person के अनुसार आता है |
Examples :
(a) Incorrect : He love her.
Correct : He loves her.
(b) Incorrect : They hates me.
Correct : They hate me.

Rule 2. जब दो Singular Nouns एक ही व्यक्ति या वस्तु को दर्शाये तो verb singular होगा और article 'the' केवल पहले noun के आगे प्रयोग किया जाता है |
Example : The Managing Director and CEO of the company is dead.

जब दो Singular Nouns अलग-अलग व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं को दर्शाये तो verb plural होगा और article 'the' दोनों  के पहले noun के आगे प्रयोग किया जाता है |
Example : The Managing Director and the CEO of the company are dead.


Rule 3.  जब दो या दो से अधिक Singular Subjects 'and' से जुड़े हो तो verb plural होगा |
Example : Geeta and Babita are sisters.

Rule 4. यदि दो subjects एक ही वस्तु या व्यक्ति का भाव दर्शाते हों तो verb singular होगा |
Examples :
(a) Curd and rice is my favourite food.
(b) The cart and horse is ready.

Rule 5. यदि दो singular subjects 'and' से जुड़े हों और उन दोनों के पहले each या every का प्रयोग हो तो उनके साथ verb singular होगा |
Example : Each boy and each girl was in the class.

Rule 6. यदि दो या दो से अधिक singular subjects, either..or, neither...nor, or या nor से जुड़े हों तो verb singular होगा |
Example : Neither Ramesh nor Suresh has eaten chocolates.

Rule 7. यदि दो या दो से अधिक अलग-अलग number के subjects, either..or, neither...nor, or या nor से जुड़े हों तो plural subject को verb के पास रखते है और plural verb का प्रयोग करते है |
Example :  Either Sheela or her friends are gulity. (Plural subject - friends, Plural verb - are)

Rule 8. जब अलग-अलग Persons (First, Second, Third) के subjects 'or' या 'nor' से जुड़े हों तो verb, last Person के अनुसार आयेगा | वाक्य में Persons का क्रम Second, Third , First Person होता है |
Example : You or I have to reach the railway station.

Rule 9. Either, Neither, Each, Every, One of, Many a के साथ singular verb का प्रयोग करते है |
Examples :
(a) Neither of the tasks was easy.
(b) Every student was absent.
(c) Each of his watches is expensive.
(d) Many a girl has come.
(e) One of the girls is very beautiful.

Rule 10. कुछ Nouns, Billiards, Gymnastics, Economics, News, Physics, Innings, Mathematics, Politics etc. देखने में Plural लगते हैं लेकिन meaning में singular होते हैं इसलिए इसके साथ verb भी singular प्रयोग होता है |
Examples :
(a) Every news is not true.
(b) Mathematics is my favourite subject.

Rule 11. जब कोई singular subject दूसरे Noun के साथ with, as well as, like, besides, together with आदि connectors द्वारा जुड़ा हो तो verb इनसे पहले आये हुए शब्द के अनुसार आता है |
Examples :
(a) She, as well as her friends, has watched this movie.
(b) No one, besides your mother, knows her name.
(c) Ramesh, like his brother, is clever.

Rule 12. जब दो Nouns या Pronouns 'not only...but also' से जुड़े हो तो Verb बाद वाले Noun या Pronoun के अनुसार आता है |
Examples :
(a) Not only her friends but also her brother was absented from the class.
(b) Not only the commander but also the soldiers were killed.

Rule 13. Books, newspaper और countries के बाद verb हमेशा singular प्रयोग होता है |
Examples :
(a) Great Expectations is the thirteenth novel by Charles Dickens.
(b) The New York Times is an American newspaper.
(c) The United States has a big air force.

Rule 14. Wages, Means और Pains के अर्थ के अनुसार verb singular या plural होता है |
Examples :
(a) Much pains has been taken.
(b) The pains of life are unbearable.


Rule 15. जब कोई Plural Noun किसी एक certain(निश्चित) measurement(नाप), amount(रकम) या distance(दूरी) को दर्शाता है तो उसके साथ verb singular प्रयोग होता है |
Examples :
(a) Hundred rupees is not a big amount.
(b) Ninety miles is a long distance.

Rule 16. Describe, define, regard, represent, mention, treat आदि verbs के बाद as का प्रयोग अवश्य करते है |
Examples :
(a) She regards me as her father.
(b) She treats him as a gentleman.

Rule 17. Appoint, dare, hear, make, see, need, choose, think आदि verbs के बाद to या as का प्रयोग नहीं करते हैं |
Examples :
(a) You need not come.
(b) She dares not oppose him.

Rule 18. Conditional sentences में If या When से शुरू होने वाली clause में Simple Present Tense तथा second clause में Simple Future Tense का प्रयोग करते हैं |
Examples : If she comes to me, I shall help her.

Rule 19. काल्पनिक शर्त के sentences में If clause Past Perfect Tense में तथा second clause में would have + third form of verb का प्रयोग करते हैं |
Example : If she had come to me, I would have helped her.

Rule 20. यदि If clause वाले का कार्य असम्भव या काल्पनिक हो तो generally, If clause में were verb का प्रयोग करते है तथा main clause में would का प्रयोग करते है |
Example : If I were a bird, I would fly.

Rule 21. यदि Subordinate clause कोई Universal truth या Habitual action हो तो verb Simple Present Tense में प्रयोग करते है |
Example :
(a) She said that the sun rises in the east. (Universal truth)
(b) He said that dogs bark at the strangers. (Habitual action)

Rule 22. यदि Principal clause की verb Present tense या Future tense में है तो Subordinate clause की verb भाव के अनुसार किसी भी tense में हो सकती है |
Examples :
(a) Ram says that Hari has gone to Delhi.
(b) Mohan will say that Seema is a doctor.

Rule 23. यदि Principal clause की verb Past tense में है तो Subordinate clause की verb भी Past tense में होगी |
Examples:
(a) Sonu told me that Rakesh was writing a book.
(b) He said that the horse had died in the night.

Rule 24. 'Lie' के साथ 'tell' और 'truth' के साथ 'speak' verb का प्रयोग करते है |
Examples :
(a) Do not tell a lie.
(b) Please speak the truth.

Rule 25. Yesterday का प्रयोग Past tense में तथा Tomorrow का प्रयोग Future tense में करते है |
Examples :
(a) He went to school yesterday.
(b) I shall go to station tomorrow.

Rule 26. Principal clause की verb Present या Future tense में हो तो Subordinate clause में may का प्रयोग करते है |
Example : She works hard so that she may get good marks.
Principal clause की verb Past tense में हो तो Subordinate clause में might का प्रयोग करते है |
Example : She worked hard so that she might get good marks.

Rule 27. (I) Generally, shall का प्रयोग First Person(I, We) के साथ तथा will का प्रयोग Second Person (You) और Third Person(He, She, It, They) के साथ future time दिखाने के लिए करते है |
Examples :
(a) I shall go with you.
(b) He will go with you.

(II) Shall का प्रयोग Second या Third Person के साथ Command(आज्ञा), Promise(वायदा), Threat(धमकी) या Determination(पक्का इरादा) प्रकट करने के लिए होता है |
Examples :
(a) Command - You shall have to leave tomorrow.
(b) Promise - You shall get prize for standing first in the class.
(c) Threat -They shall go to prison if they blackmail me.
(d) Determination - He shall find another job.

(III) Will का प्रयोग First Person के साथ Willingness(इच्छा), Promise, Threat या Determination प्रकट करने के लिए होता है |
Examples :
(a) Willingness - I will work late today.
(b) Promise - I will try to leave smoking.
(c) Threat - We will beat you if you do not support us.
(d) Determination - We will fight against corruption.


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Using a computer everyday can have more negative than positive effects on children. Do you agree or disagree?



In today's world, computers are very useful and essential in day to day life. Children are encouraged by the computer right from the beginning. For overall development, it has become a necessity to participate in various activities for every child where computers assist children in accomplishing these activities. Therefore I completely disagree with the view that Kids using computers in everyday life have more negative impacts on them, rather their use acquaints younger generation with upcoming advancements. Several aspects of using computers in the daily life of children are outlined below.

The personal life of children seems to be more self-depend using computers and internet to connect them to the world. Banking, shopping, traveling and relationship are easy to manage with the help of computers and the internet. The dominance of computer in today's age can be marked by its presence on various levels such as desktop, laptops, tablets, smartphones etcetera.

It would completely be unfair limiting computers benefited for personal life only, however, the academic standard has vitally altered with the induction of technology into education. Reading and learning have become way too easy along with teaching where many options of online classes have changed the course of study. For scholars, reading and publishing their findings has become facile, unlike earlier times.

The professional life has also changed to a great extent. LinkedIn and other networks have made the world global community to experience more opportunities around the world. The doors to everything open with the learning of computer education at an early stage of life.

In addition, I would like to make a disclaimer that the use of computers for kids ruins their future regardless of the advantages supersede. Furthermore, the use of the computer in childhood equips one with all the necessities required to handle the complexities of everyday situations.