2014
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Describe a 3-day holiday you enjoyed
  • Where you went?
  • When you went?
  • With whom you went?
  • Things you enjoyed there?


I would like to speak about my visit to 'Nainital' which is a hill station. Last year, in the month of December, I and my friends planned for Nainital so we hired a cab and reached there at 11 in the morning then we took rest for few hours in a hotel room. After taking rest, we took a ride on the trolley to reach the peak of the mountain where we used binoculars to saw peaks of The Himalaya. Then we returned back to the hotel room.

On the next day, we enjoyed boating in the Naini lake and enjoyed shopping in the market where we brought winter clothes and designer candles and after taking so many photographs and eating lunch at a good restaurant near the lake, we came back to the room.

On the last day, we went to the 'Tiffin top' and 'Lovers point', both the places are so beautiful and attractive.
I was totally delightful because the sky was so clear and the breeze was cool for the whole day.

Then enjoying most of the thing we returned back to our home but still, that day is the memorable day of my life with my friends. Even today, when I see the photos of that trip, I get refreshed.

जब किसी वाक्य में आज्ञा (order), परामर्श(advice) या प्रार्थना (request) प्रकट की गयी हो तो उसे Imperative Sentence कहते हैं । इसमें करता you छिपा रहता है तथा वाक्य finite verb से प्रारम्भ होता है । 
Imperative Sentences - Direct and Indirect Speech

Rule 1: Reporting Verb 'said' को भाव के अनुसार इस प्रकार बदलते है :
a) order - ordered, commanded
b) advice - advised, urged
c) request - requested, begged, implored, entreated

Rule 2: Reported Speech के verb के पहले 'to' जोड़कर infinitive बना देते हैं । Example :
Direct : The Teacher said to me, "Sit in your class and learn your lesson."
Indirect : The teacher ordered me to sit in my class and learn my lesson.

Rule 3: Reported Speech के Vocative Case के noun को Reporting Verb का कर्म (Object) बना देते हैं । Example :
Direct : He said, "Work hard, friends."
Indirect : He advised his friends to work hard.

Rule 4: जब Reported Speech 'Do not' से प्रारम्भ हो, तो इसके परिवर्तन की दो विधिया है, जैसे :
a) Reporting Verb को forbade में बदल दिया जाता है तथा Reported Speech में आये हुए 'do not' को समाप्त करके क्रिया से पहले to लगा देते है । जैसे :
Direct : The teacher said to the boy, "Do not abuse anyone."
Indirect : The teacher forbade the boy to abuse anyone.
b) Reporting Verb 'said' को भाव  अनुसार ordered, advised या requested में बदला जाता है परन्तु इसमें Reported Speech में से केवल 'do' हटता है और 'not' के बाद 'to' infinitive का प्रयोग किया जाता है ।  जैसे :
Direct : Your father said to the boy, "Do not waste your time."
Indirect : Your father advised the boy not to waste his time.


Rule 5: Reported Speech जब never से प्रारम्भ हो तो Reporting verb को advised में बदल देते हैं और never तथा क्रिया के बीच to का प्रयोग करते हैं । जैसे -
Direct : Your father said to the boy, "Never waste your time."
Indirect : Your father advised the boy never to waste his time.

Rule 6: जब Reported Speech में 'Sir', 'Please', 'Kindly' आदि शब्दों का प्रयोग होता है तो Reported Verb को requested से बदल देते हैं । जैसे -
Direct : She said to Reena, "Kindly help me."
Indirect : She requested Reena to help her.

Rule 7: यदि Reported Speech में If से प्रारम्भ होने वाले clause में सलाह का भाव  है तो Indirect Speech में should का प्रयोग करना चाहिए । जैसे -
Direct : The father said, "If you suffer from cold and cough, consult a doctor surely."
Indirect : The father said if I suffered from cold and cough, I should consult a doctor surely.

Some more examples :
Direct : She said, "Could I use your pen?"
Indirect : She requested me to use my pen.

Direct : She said, "Would you like to have lunch with me?"
Indirect : She invited me to have lunch with her.

Direct : "Would you please give me your bag?" she said to me.
Indirect : She requested me to give her my bag. 


Imperative sentences में आये Let को बदलने के नियम 
A) For Proposal (प्रस्ताव)
i) Reporting verb को proposed या suggested में बदल देते हैं । 
ii) Inverted commas को हटाकर that लगाते हैं । 
iii) Objective case (us) को Nominative case (we or they) में reporting verb के subject के person के अनुसार बदलते  हैं । 
iv) Let को should में बदलते हैं और इसे we or they के बाद लिखते हैं। 
a) Direct : Sam said, "Let us go for a party."
Indirect : Sam proposed that they should go for a party.

b) Direct : I said to Reena, "Let us play a game."
Indirect : I suggested to Reena that we should play a game.

c) Direct : "Let's go to the market," said Asha, "Let's not," said Neha.
Indirect : Asha suggested to Neha that we should go to the market but Neha objected.
or
Asha suggested to Neha that we should go to the market but Neha was against it.

Note : For reporting Let's not of an affirmative suggestion, we use objected or was against it. (See example c)

B) For Request (प्रार्थना)
i) Reporting verb को requested में बदल देते हैं । 
ii) Let को to let में बदलते हैं या फिर let के स्थान पर that लगाकर noun या pronoun के साथ might be allowed to लिखकर क्रिया की first form लगाते हैं ।
Note : If request or advice is started with 'Let there be' then we have to report it with 'that there should be'.


a) Direct : He said, "Let me go home."
Indirect : He requested to let him go home.
or
He requested that he might be allowed to go home.

b) Direct : I said to Kanika, "Let there be no talk about you."
Indirect : I advised to Kanika that there should be no talk about you.

C) For Command (आदेश)
i) Reporting verb को ordered में बदल देते हैं । 
ii) Let के स्थान पर that लगाकर noun या pronoun के बाद should का प्रयोग करते हैं । 
Direct : The policeman said, "Let the man go."
Indirect : The policeman ordered that the man should go

Recommended Post - Exercises based on the use of Imperative Sentences - Direct and Indirect Narration

Direct and Indirect Narration
Interrogative sentences से प्रश्न का बोध होता है , इस प्रकार के sentences को Indirect में बदलते समय निम्नलिखित बातों का ध्यान रखना चाहिए :

Rule 1: Reporting Verb 'said to' को asked या enquired of में बदल देते हैं ।

Rule 2: प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यो में 'That' conjuction का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता ।

Rule 3: Indirect में प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य को साधारण वाक्य (Assertive Sentence) बना देते हैं । प्रश्नवाचक चिन्ह (?) हटा दिया जाता है , और उसके स्थान पर Full Stop(.) का प्रयोग किया जाता है ।

Rule 4: Reported Speech के Pronoun, Verb तथा अन्य शब्दों को Assertive sentences के नियमो के अनुसार बदलते हैं ।

Rule 5: जब Direct Speech में ऐसा प्रश्न हो जिसका उत्तर "Yes" या "No" में दिया जा सके अर्थात Reported Speech किसी सहायक क्रिया (Auxiliary verb) जैसे - is, are, am, was, were, do, does, did, shall, will, has, have, had, can, may आदि से शुरू हुई है तो Indirect Speech को Connective word 'if' या 'whether' से प्रारम्भ किया जाता है । उसके बाद करता लगाकर फिर से क्रिया का प्रयोग करते हैं । जैसे -
1. Direct - Aksay said to me, "Are you reading a newspaper?" 
   Indirect - Aksay asked me if I was reading a newspaper.
2. Direct - I said to him, "Can you tell me what the time is ?"
   Indirect - I asked him whether he could tell me what the time was.


Rule 6: अगर Reported Speech में सहायक क्रिया Do या Does हो और उसके बाद 'not' न हो तो Indirect बनाते समय उनको हटा देते हैं, और मुख्य क्रिया को Simple Past Tense में बदल देते है । जैसे - 
1. Direct - She said to me, "Do you know Hemant?" 
   Indirect - She asked me whether I knew Hemant.
2. Direct - I said to him, "Do you tell me the matter?"
   Indirect - I asked him if he told me the matter.

Rule 7: अगर Reported Speech में Do या Does के बाद 'not' हो तो do या does के स्थान पर 'did' कर दिया जाता है । इस प्रकार Reported Speech के verb का Past Tense अपने आप बन जाता है । जैसे -
1. Direct - Father said to me, "Do you not obey me?" 
   Indirect - Father asked me if I did not obey him.
2. Direct - I said to him, "Don't you go to college today?"
   Indirect - I asked him if he didn't go to college that day.

Rule 8: अगर Reported Speech में 'did' helping verb हो तो इसे हटा कर मुख्य क्रिया को Past perfect tense में बदल देते है । जैसे -
Direct - He said to me, "Did you give me your phone?" 
Indirect - He asked me whether I had given him my phone.

Rule 9: यदि Reported Speech प्रश्नसूचक शब्द (what, who, which, whom, whose, when, why, how आदि ) से शुरू होती है तो Indirect Speech में कोई अन्य connective नहीं लगाया जाना चाहिए । ये शब्द ही connective होते है । जैसे -
1. Direct - I said to her, "Who are you?" 
   Indirect - I asked her who she was.
2. Direct - He said to him, "Where do you live?"
   Indirect - He asked him where he lived.


Rule 10: 'yes', 'no' answer to questions -
1. Direct - I said to her, "Can you give me this book?" She said, "Yes."
   Indirect - I asked her if she could give me that book. She replied that she could.
2. Direct - He said to Ashok, "Are you attending the class?" Ashok said, "No."
   Indirect - He asked Ashok if he was attending the class. Ashok said that he was not.

Recommended Post - Exercises based on the use of Interrogative Sentences - Direct and Indirect Narration

Direct and Indirect Narration
समय या स्थिति की निकटता सूचक शब्दों को बदलने के नियम (Rules for change of words expressing nearness of time or position)

Rule 1: Reported Speech में प्रयुक्त समय अथवा स्थिति की निकटता (nearness of time or position) सूचक शब्दों को दूरी प्रकट करने वाले शब्दों में बदल देते हैं । जैसे :
ago : before
come : go
hence : thence
hither : thither
here : there
just : then
now : then
this : that
these : those
thus : so
to-night : that night
today : that day
tomorrow : the next day or the following day
yesterday : the previous day or the day before
last night/week/year : the previous night/week/year
next week/month/year : the following week/month/year
yesterday morning : the previous morning or the morning before


Examples :
1. Direct - He said to them, "I will leave you now."
    Indirect - He told them that he would leave them then.
2. Direct - Ritesh said to Komal, "I cannot go with you till next Monday."
    Indirect - Ritesh told Komal that he could not go with him till the following Monday.
3. Direct - He said to me, "I came here yesterday."
    Indirect - He told me that he had gone there the previous day.

Rule 2: यदि this, here और now आदि किसी ऐसी वस्तु या स्थान या समय की और संकेत करे जो कहते समय वक्ता के सामने उपस्थित हो तो Indirect बनाते समय उनमे कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता, बल्कि उन्हें ज्यो का त्यों रख देते है। जैसे :
1. Direct - He said to me, "This is my house."
    Indirect - He told me that this was his house.
2. Direct - The leader says, "I am glad to be here this morning.."
    Indirect - The leader says that he is glad to be here this morning.
3. Direct - He said to me, "I will do it now."
    Indirect - He told me that he would do it now.

Rule 3: This या these का प्रयोग यदि समय की ऒर संकेत के लिए होता है तो Indirect में इनको that या those में ही बदलते हैं । पर यदि this या these का प्रयोग Adjectives की भाँति हुआ है तो Indirect बनाते समय that या those के स्थान पर the का प्रयोग भी कर सकते हैं।


Examples :
1. Direct - He said, "We are going for a party this week."
    Indirect - He said that they were going for a party that week.
2. Direct - she said, "I am preparing for the test these days"
    Indirect - The leaders say that he was preparing for the test those days.
3. Direct - He said, "I have typed all these essays"
    Indirect - He said that he had typed all the essays.
or
                He said that he had typed all those essays.

कुछ विशेष परिवर्तन (Some important changes):
A. कभी-कभी Reported Speech में कुछ Nouns, Vocative case में आ जाते है, Indirect Narration में  परिवर्तन करते समय वे Reporting Verb के Object बन जाते हैं । जैसे :
1. Direct - Hemant said, "Ashok, I shall give you a book."
    Indirect - Hemant told Ashok that he would give him a book.
2. Direct - "My sons," said the old farmer, "I am planting these trees for you."
    Indirect - The old farmer told his sons that he was planting those trees for them.

B. यदि Inverted Commas के अंदर सम्बोधन के शब्द (Terms of address) का प्रयोग हो, तो उनको objects में बदल देते है या फिर उन्हें address....as के बाद रखते हैं । जैसे :
Direct - "Naughty boy," said his mother, "You have been fighting again."
Indirect - Addressing her son as a naughty boy the mother said that he had been fighting again.

C. Needn't को Indirect speech में ज्यो का त्यों रहने देते हैं । जैसे :
Direct - He said to his wife, "I needn't go there now."
Indirect - He told his wife that he needn't go there then.


D. यदि Inverted Commas के भीतर "well" या "you see" शब्द हो तो Indirect बनाते समय इन शब्दों को हटा देते हैं क्योकि ये निरर्थक शब्द हैं । जैसे :
1. Direct - Hemant said, "Well Ashok, I shall give you a book."
    Indirect - Hemant told Ashok that he would give him a book.
2. Direct - The mother said, "You see, I am planting these trees for you."
    Indirect - The mother said that she was planting those trees for them.

E. जिन शर्त बताने वाले (conditional) वाक्यो से काल्पनिक अथवा अवास्तविक स्थिति का बोध होता है, उनमे अवास्तविक भूतकाल (Unreal past tense) का प्रयोग होता है । Indirect Speech में इनमे कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता है । जैसे :
Direct - He said, "If my college was near the house I would always be on time."
Indirect - He said that if her college was near the house she would always be on time.

F. Reported Speech में thank you का प्रयोग होने पर Indirect Speech में Reporting verb को thanked में बदल देते हैं । इसी तरह Reported Speech में प्रयुक्त hope, feel आदि को भी Reporting Verb बना देते हैं । जैसे -
1. Direct - The pupil said to the teacher, "Thank you, sir, for your help."
Indirect - The pupil respectfully thanked the teacher for his help.
2. Direct - She said, "I hope my mother will come tomorrow."
Indirect - She hoped that my mother would come the next day.

Recommended Post - Exercises based on the use of Assertive Sentences Part 3 - Direct and Indirect Narration

Direct and Indirect Narration
  1. The life history of a man written by himself. Autobiography (आत्मकथा)
  2. A person who believes that there is no God. Atheist (नास्तिक)
  3. A medicine which counteracts the effects of poison. Antidote (जहर मारने की दवा)
  4. A person who does something not professionally but for pleasure. Amateur (अव्यवसायी) 
  5. That which does not bear the name of the writer. Anonymous (बिना नाम का)
  6. Government by a ruler who has unlimited power. Autocracy (एक व्यक्ति का शासन)
  7. A diplomatic representative of one country in another. Ambassador (राजदूत)
  8. A traveller in space. Astronaut (अंतरिक्ष यात्री)
  9. An assembly of listeners. Audience (श्रोतागण)
  10. To give up the throne. Abdicate (राज्य त्यागना)
  11. A medicine which prevents infection by killing germs. Antiseptic (सड़न रोकने वाली)
  12. The science of vegetable life. Botany (वनस्पति-विज्ञान)
  13. The science which treats of life. Biology (जीव विज्ञान)
  14. Government by officials. Bureaucracy (अफसरशाही)
  15. The life history of a man written by someone else. Biography (जीवन कथा)
  16. One who has narrow and prejudiced religious views. Bigot (कट्टर)
  17. Festival of the hundredth anniversary. Centenary (शताब्दी महोत्सव)
  18. The man who eats human flesh. Cannibal (नरभक्षी)
  19. Place for burials other than a churchyard. Cemetery (कब्रिस्तान)
  20. Place for cremation of dead bodies. Crematorium (शमशान)  

  21. A Person who is free from national prejudices. Cosmopolitan (विश्वप्रेमी)
  22. People working together in the same office or department. Colleagues (सहकर्मी)
  23. Belonging to the same time. Contemporary (समकालीन)
  24. Substance designed to make the skin or hair more beautiful. Cosmetics (सौंदर्य प्रसाधन)
  25. That can be believed. Credible (विश्वसनीय)
  26. The state of remaining unmarried. Celibacy (ब्रह्मचर्य)
  27. The artist who draws the comic pictures. Cartoonist (हास्यजनक चित्र बनाने वाला)
  28. A government of the people, by the people and for the people. Democracy (प्रजातंत्र)
  29. A battle or match in which neither party wins. Drawn (अनिर्णीत) 
  30. Want of rain. Drought (सूखा)
  31. A disease that spreads over a large area. Epidemic (महामारी)
  32. Articles sent from one country to another. Export (निर्यात)
  33. That which is fit to be eaten. Edible (खाने योग्य)
  34. A selfish person who always thinks of himself. Egoist (अहंवादी)
  35. Fit to be chosen. Eligible (योग्य)
  36. A person who leaves his own country and goes to live in another. Emigrant (प्रवासी)
  37. A speech delivered without previous preparation. Extempore (बिना तैयारी के)
  38. Words inscribed on graves. Epitaph (कब्र पर अंकित शब्द)
  39. One who believes in fate. Fatalist (भाग्यवादी)
  40. That which may cause death. Fatal (घातक)
  41. A man residing in a country of which he is not a citizen. Foreigner (विदेशी)
  42. A medicine that kills germs.  Germicide (कीटनाशक)
  43. A person who eats too much. Glutton (पेटू)
  44. An office for which no salary is paid. Honorary (अवैतनिक)
  45. Killing of a human being specially by another. Homicide (नर-हत्या)

  46. That which cannot be read. illegible (अपठनीय)
  47. A person who comes to one country from another in order to settle there. Immigrant (आवासी)
  48. That which cannot be heard. Inaudible (जिसे सुना न जा सके)
  49. That which is difficult to believe. Incredible (जिसका विश्वास न किया जा सके)
  50. That which cannot be conquered. Invincible (अजेय)
  51. One who can neither read nor write. Illiterate (अनपढ़)  
  52. That which cannot be imitated. Inimitable (जिसे नक़ल न कर सके) 
  53. That which cannot be corrected. Incorrigible (जिसे ठीक न किया जा सके)
  54. The killing of a new born baby or child. Infanticide (बाल हत्या)
  55. That which cannot be repaired. Irreparable (जिसे सुधारा न जा सके)
  56. That which cannot be removed. Indelible (अमिट)
  57. Person unable to pay debts. Insolvent (दिवालिया)
  58. That which cannot be reached. Inaccessible (पहुँच से बाहर)
  59. That which is contrary to law. Illegal (अवैध)
  60. Capable of catching fire easily. Inflammable (जल्दी आग पकड़ने वाला) 
  61. One who lacks knowledge or awareness. Ignorant  (अज्ञानी)
  62. One who knows many languages. Linguist (कई भाषाए जानने वाला)
  63. Room or building used for scientific experiments. Laboratory (प्रयोगशाला)
  64. Matter which is hand written. Manuscript (हस्तलिपि)
  65. Person who is caused to suffer for a great cause. Martyr (शहीद) 
  66. A person who works for money at the expense of ethics. Mercenary (किराए का) 
  67. A short statement expressing principle of practical wisdom or rule of conduct. Maxim (उसूल, सिद्धांत)
  68. A place where dead bodies are kept before postmortem. Mortuary (मुर्दाघर)
  69. A person who hates mankind. Misanthropist (मानवता से घृणा करने वाला)
  70. Widely known for bad works. Notorious (कुख्यात) 

  71. Providing special favour to his/her relatives or friends by a person who is in high position. Nepotism (भाई-भतीजावाद)
  72. Person who eats meat. Non-vegetarian (माँसाहारी)
  73. A word or custom which is no longer in use. Obsolete (अप्रचलित)
  74. That which is not wide or of a small width. Narrow (संकीर्ण)
  75. A person who looks at the bright side of things. Optimist (आशावादी)
  76. A child whose parents are not alive. Orphan (अनाथ)
  77. One who has unlimited or great power. Omnipotent (सर्वशक्तिशाली)
  78. A garden of fruits. Orchard (फलों का बगीचा)
  79. Following traditional rules or beliefs in religion. Orthodox (रूढ़िवादी)
  80. That which can not be seen through. Opaque (अपारदर्शी)
  81. One who is present everywhere. Omnipresent (सर्व-भूत)
  82. One who knows everything. Omniscient (सर्वज्ञ)
  83. Medical examination of a dead body to know the cause of death. Postmortem (शव-परीक्षा)
  84. A person who always looks at negative or dark side of things. Pessimist (निराशावादी)
  85. Solution or remedy for all kinds of diseases. Panacea (सर्वरोगहारी)
  86. One who leaves on another. Parasite (परजीवी)
  87. A person who promote the welfare of others. Philanthropist (परोपकारक)
  88. A person who journeys to a holy place for religious reasons. Pilgrim (तीर्थयात्री)
  89. Appearing or born after the death of its father or originator. Posthumous (मरणोपरांत)
  90. A woman having more than one alive husband. Polyandry (एक से अधिक पति रखना)
  91. A person who loves his country so much and prepared to defend it from enemies. Patriot (देशभक्त)
  92. A person who walks on foot. Pedestrian (पैदल चलने वाला)
  93. A person who lives alone and tends to avoid other people. Recluse (सन्यासी)
  94. Intentionally killing of one's own self. Suicide (आत्महत्या)
  95. A person who speaks on behalf of individual or a group. Spokesman (प्रवक्ता)

  96. A thing which is not fresh. Stale (बासी)
  97. A person who never drinks alcohol. Teetotaller (मादक द्रव्यों का त्यागी)
  98. A person who believes in God. Theist (आस्तिक)
  99. That which can be seen through. Transparent (पारदर्शक)
  100. One opinion made by everyone. Unanimous (एकमत)
  101. Which is difficult to believe. Unbelievable (अविश्वसनीय)
  102. A person who lends money at unreasonably very high rates of interest. Usurer (सूदखोर)
  103. A person who does not eat meat and lives completely on vegetable food. Vegetarian (शाखाहारी)
  104. A person who has or had a long experience. Veteran (दीर्घानुभवी)
  105. Working or acting of one's own free will. Voluntary (स्वैच्छिक) 
  106. A place where clothes are hung or stored. Wardrobe (अलमारी) 
  107. Not living or growing in a domesticated or cultivated environment. Wild (जंगली) 
  108. A woman whose husband is dead. Widow (विधवा) 
  109. A man whose wife is dead. Widower (विधुर) 
  110. An establishment like park or garden which has a collection of wild animals, birds etc. to display to the public. Zoo (चिड़ियाघर)




Vocabulary

Transformation of Sentences in Hindi and English