Following are the rules with examples of making Plurals of Singular Nouns:

Rule 1. Most of the nouns use ‘s’ to make plurals.
SingularPlural
CatCats
KeyKeys
FlowerFlowers
ClockClocks
ComputerComputers



Rule 2. Noun which ends with s, x, z, ch or sh. Add ‘es’ to make plural.
SingularPlural
BossBosses
BoxBoxes
QuizQuizzes
LunchLunches
WishWishes

(Exceptional Cases: Axis –Axes, Ox – Oxen)

Rule 3. Noun which ends with vowel and ‘y’. Add ‘s’ to make plural.
SingularPlural
GuyGuys
ToyToys
PlayPlays
EssayEssays
KeyKeys


Rule 4. Noun which ends with consonant and ‘y’. Replace ‘y’ with ‘ies’ to make plural.
SingularPlural
CityCities
FamilyFamilies
StudyStudies
FlyFlies
LadyLadies


Rule 5. Some Nouns which end with ‘o’, use ‘es’ to make plural.
SingularPlural
PotatoPotatoes
TomatoTomatoes
ZeroZeroes
HeroHeroes
EchoEchoes


Some Nouns which end with ‘o’, use ‘s’ to make plural.
SingularPlural
PhotoPhotos
PianoPianos
VideoVideos
EgoEgos
ZooZoos


Rule 6. Some Nouns which end with ‘f’ or ‘fe’. Replace ‘f’ or ‘fe’ with ‘ves’ to make plural.
SingularPlural
CalfCalves
KnifeKnives
HalfHalves
LifeLives
WifeWives


Nouns which end with ‘f’ or ‘fe’. Replace ‘f’ or ‘fe’ with ‘s’ to make plural.
SingularPlural
ChefChefs
CliffCliffs
SafeSafes
ProofProofs
DwarfDwarfs


Rule 7. Some Irregular Nouns:
SingularPlural
PersonPeople
ChildChildren
FootFeet
ToothTeeth
GooseGeese
MouseMice
ManMen
WomanWomen
ThatThose
ThisThese
LouseLice


Rule 8. Nouns whose Singular and Plural form remains same.
SingularPlural
FishFish (Collectively), Fishes (taken separately)
Examples:
(Collectively) The sea abounds in fish.
(Taken separately) There are twenty fishes in the basket.


SingularPlural
AdviceAdvice
TunaTuna
SheepSheep
DeerDeer
SalmonSalmon
SilverSilver
GoldGold
MachineryMachinery
LuckLuck
MusicMusic
JewelryJewelry
LuggageLuggage
HairHair
InformationInformation
SceneryScenery
PoetryPoetry

Examples:
(a) The scenery of Switzerland is beautiful.
(b) His hair has turned grey.
(c) He bought new machinery.

Rule 9. Some Nouns look Singular but are Plural.
People, Cattle, Poultry, Vermin, Gentry, Police, Military, Public etc.
Examples:
(a) Cattle are grazing in the field.
(b) The police have arrested the thief.

Rule 10. Some Nouns look plural but are used as singular.
Civics, Economics, Physics, news, Mechanics, Mathematics, innings etc.
Example:
Physics is a difficult subject.

Rule 11. Some Nouns which are only used as Plurals.
thanks, riches, alms, tongs, spectacles, scissors, trousers, spirits, scissors, trousers etc.
Example:
Her spectacles are very beautiful.

Rule 12. Compound Nouns:
SingularPlural
Daughter-in-law Daughters-in-law
Post office Post offices
Inspector-GeneralInspectors-General
Man-of-warMen-of-war
Step-daughterStep-daughters
Passer-byPassers-by
Commander-in-chiefCommanders-in-chief
Brother-in-lawBrothers-in-law
Son-in-lawSons-in-law
Looker-onLookers-on



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