Figures of speech (अलंकार)
भाषा में सरलता, नवीनता, माधुर्य एवं सौंदर्य के लिए अलंकारों का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
In language, figures of speech are used for simplicity, novelty, melody, and beauty.


अलंकार मुख्यता सात प्रकार के होते है।
There are mainly seven types of figures of speech.

1. Simile (उपमा)
2. Metaphor (रूपक)
3. Personification (मानवीयकरण)
4. Apostrophe (सम्बोधन)
5. Oxymoron (विरोधाभास)
6. Hyperbole (अतिशयोक्ति)
7. Onomatopoeia (ध्वनि-सूचक)


Simile (उपमा)
यह अलंकार दो भिन्न प्रकार की वस्तुओं की तुलना करता है जिनमें कम से कम एक गुण समान हो। as, so या like शब्दों का प्रयोग समानता व्यक्त करने के लिए होता है। 
This compares two objects of different kinds that have at least one property in common. The words as, so, or like are used to express equality. 

Examples :
a) It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven.
b) I see the waves upon the shore, Like light dissolved in star-showers thrown.
c) Till death like sleep might steal on me.
d) And we are here as on a darkling plain, Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight.
e) She sways like a flower in the wind of our song.

Note: यदि तुलना एक ही जाति की दो वस्तुओं में हो तो वो Simile नहीं बल्कि Comparison होगा। 
If the comparison is between two objects of the same caste, then it will not be Simile but Comparison.
Example :
She is as beautiful as her sister. 
यहाँ पर she और her sister एक ही जाति के है इसलिए यह केवल तुलना है, न की उपमा अलंकार। 

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