Tenses में परिवर्तन सम्बन्धी नियम (Rules for the change of Tenses)

Rule 1: यदि Reporting Verb, Present अथवा Future Tense मे हो। तो Reported Speech के Verb के Tense में किसी प्रकार का परिवर्तन नहीं करते हैं । जैसे:
Direct - Ram says,"Hari has gone to Agra."
Indirect - Ram says that Hari has gone to Agra.
Direct - Sohan will say,"Asha is very intelligent."
Indirect - Sohan will say that Asha is very intelligent.
Direct - He has said to me," Ravi will join the camp."
Indirect - He has told me that Ravi will join the camp.

Note : say, says या said को Indirect Speech में tell, tells या told में उस समय बदलते है , जब इसके बाद Object (कर्म ) हो । यदि say, says या said के बाद Object न हो तो उन्हें नहीं बदलते । 

Rule 2: यदि Reporting Verb, Past Tense में हो , तो Reported Speech के Tense में परिवर्तन होता है । 
a) Simple Present Tense बदलकर Simple Past Tense हो जाता है। जैसे :
Direct - Mohan said," Raman tells a lie."
Indirect - Mohan said that Raman told a lie.

b) Present Continuous या Imperfect को Past Continuous या Imperfect में बदल देते है । जैसे:
Direct - Sonu said to me, "Rakesh is writing a book."
Indirect - Sonu told me that Rakesh was writing a book.

c) Present Perfect Tense को Past Perfect Tense में बदल देते है। जैसे:
Direct - Ramesh said, "Raman has completed his work."
Indirect - Ramesh said that Raman had completed his work.

d) Present Perfect Continuous को Past Perfect Continuous में बदल देते हैं । जैसे:
Direct - He said," It has been raining since morning."
Indirect - He said that it had been raining since morning.

e) Past Indefinite को बदल कर Past Perfect में कर देते हैं । जैसे -
Direct - He said,"The horse died in the night ."
Indirect - He said that the horse had died in the night.

f) Past Continuous को Past Perfect Continuous में बदल देते हैं । जैसे:
Direct - He said," The students were learning their lessons."
Indirect - He said that the students had been learning their lessons.

g) Past Perfect Tense तथा Past Perfect Continuous में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता है। जैसे:
1. Direct - He said,"Uma had won the match."
    Indirect - He said that uma had won the match.
2. Direct - She said,"Uma had been reading for two hours."
    Indirect - She said that Uma had been reading for two hours.

h) यदि Reporting Verb भूतकाल (Past Tense) में है , तो Reported Speech में आने वाले 'shall' को should एवं 'will' को would में बदल देते है। जैसे:
1. Direct - I said,"I shall play."
    Indirect - I said that I should play.
2. Direct - She said,"Uma will see a picture."
    Indirect - She said that Uma would see a picture.

i) यदि Reporting Verb Past Tense में है , तो Reported Speech में आने वाले 'can' को could तथा 'may' को might में बदल देते है । परन्तु 'must', 'ought', 'could', 'would', 'might', 'had better' तथा 'used to' में परिवर्तन नहीं होता है । जैसे :

1. Direct - I said,"I can jump into the river."
    Indirect - I said that I could jump into the river.
2. Direct - She said,"The boy may go."
    Indirect - She said that the boy might go.
3. Direct - The teacher said,"Ram must be awarded."
    Indirect - I said that Ram must be awarded.
4. Direct - She said to me,"I should have tried harder."
    Indirect - She told me that I should have tried harder.

Tense सम्बन्धी नियम के अपवाद (Exceptions)
नीचे लिखी दशाओ में Reporting Verb, Past Tense में होते हुए भी Reported Speech का Tense नहीं बदलता है :
(1) जब कोई सदा सत्य रहने वाली बात (Universal Truth) कही जाए; जैसे :
1. Direct - The teacher said,"The earth moves round the sun."
    Indirect - The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun.
2. Direct - He said,"The sun rises in the east."
    Indirect - He said that the sun rises in the east.

(2) जब कोई आदत सम्बन्धी सत्य (Habitual fact) कहा जाए ; जैसे :
1. Direct - Hari said to Ravi,"Dogs bark at the strangers."
    Indirect - Hari told Ravi that dogs bark at the strangers.
2. Direct - The teacher said,"When the cat is away, the mice play."
    Indirect - The teacher said that when the cat is away, the mice play.

(3) जब कोई कहावत (Proverb) कही जाए ; जैसे : 
    Direct - Hari said,"Honesty is the best policy."
    Indirect - Hari said that honesty is the best policy.


(4) जब किसी ऐतिहासिक घटना (Historical fact) का जिक्र हो ; जैसे:
    Direct - The History teacher said,"Samudra Gupta is called the Napoleon of India."
    Indirect - The History teacher said that Samudra Gupta is called the Napoleon of India.

Direct and Indirect Narration

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