समय या स्थिति की निकटता सूचक शब्दों को बदलने के नियम (Rules for change of words expressing nearness of time or position)
Rule 1: Reported Speech में प्रयुक्त समय अथवा स्थिति की निकटता (nearness of time or position) सूचक शब्दों को दूरी प्रकट करने वाले शब्दों में बदल देते हैं । जैसे :
ago : before
come : go
hence : thence
hither : thither
here : there
just : then
now : then
this : that
these : those
thus : so
to-night : that night
today : that day
tomorrow : the next day or the following day
yesterday : the previous day or the day before
last night/week/year : the previous night/week/year
next week/month/year : the following week/month/year
yesterday morning : the previous morning or the morning before

Example :
1. Direct - He said to them, "I will leave you now."
    Indirect - He told them that he would leave them then.
2. Direct - Ritesh said to Komal, "I cannot go with you till next Monday."
    Indirect - Ritesh told Komal that he could not go with him till the following Monday.
3. Direct - He said to me, "I came here yesterday."
    Indirect - He told me that he had gone there the previous day.

Rule 2: यदि this, here और now आदि किसी ऐसी वस्तु या स्थान या समय की और संकेत करे जो कहते समय वक्ता के सामने उपस्थित हो तो Indirect बनाते समय उनमे कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता, बल्कि उन्हें ज्यो का त्यों रख देते है। जैसे :
1. Direct - He said to me, "This is my house."
    Indirect - He told me that this was his house.
2. Direct - The leaders says, "I am glad to be here this morning.."
    Indirect - The leaders says that he is glad to be here this morning.
3. Direct - He said to me, "I will do it now."
    Indirect - He told me that he would do it now.

Rule 3: This या these का प्रयोग यदि समय की ऒर संकेत के लिए होता है तो Indirect में इनको that या those में ही बदलते हैं । पर यदि this या these का प्रयोग Adjectives की भाँति हुआ है तो Indirect बनाते समय that या those के स्थान पर the का प्रयोग भी कर सकते हैं।  Examples :

1. Direct - He said, "We are going for a party this week."
    Indirect - He said that they were going for a party that week.
2. Direct - she said, "I am preparing for the test these days"
    Indirect - The leaders says that he was preparing for the test those days.
3. Direct - He said, "I have typed all these essays"
    Indirect - He said that he had typed all the essays.
or
                He said that he had typed all those essays.

कुछ विशेष परिवर्तन (Some important changes):
A. कभी-कभी Reported Speech में कुछ Nouns, Vocative case में आ जाते है, Indirect Narration में  परिवर्तन करते समय वे Reporting Verb के Object बन जाते हैं । जैसे :
1. Direct - Hemant said, "Ashok, I shall give you a book."
    Indirect - Hemant told Ashok that he would give him a book.
2. Direct - "My sons" said the old farmer, "I am planting these trees for you."
    Indirect - The old farmer told his sons that he was planting those trees for them.

B. यदि Inverted Commas के अंदर सम्बोधन के शब्द (Terms of address) का प्रयोग हो, तो उनको objects में बदल देते है या फिर उन्हें address....as के बाद रखते हैं । जैसे :
Direct - "Naughty boy" said his mother, "You have been fighting again."
Indirect - Addressing her son as a naughty boy the mother said that he had been fighting again.

C. Needn't को Indirect speech में ज्यो का त्यों रहने देते हैं । जैसे :
Direct - He said to his wife, " I needn't go there now."
Indirect - He told his wife that he needn't go there then.

D. यदि Inverted Commas के भीतर "well" या "you see" शब्द हो तो Indirect बनाते समय इन शब्दों को हटा देते हैं क्योकि ये निरर्थक शब्द हैं । जैसे :
1. Direct - Hemant said, "Well Ashok, I shall give you a book."
    Indirect - Hemant told Ashok that he would give him a book.
2. Direct - The mother said, "You see, I am planting these trees for you."
    Indirect - The mother said that he was planting those trees for them.

E. जिन शर्त बताने वाले (conditional) वाक्यो से काल्पनिक अथवा अवास्तविक स्थिति का बोध होता है, उनमे अवास्तविक भूतकाल (Unreal past tense) का प्रयोग होता है । Indirect Speech में इनमे कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता है । जैसे :
Direct - He said, " If my college was near the house I would always be in time."
Indirect - He said that if her college was near the house she would always be in time.

F. Reported Speech में thank you का प्रयोग होने पर Indirect Speech में Reporting verb को thanked में बदल देते हैं । इसी तरह Reported Speech में प्रयुक्त hope, feel आदि को भी Reporting Verb बना देते हैं । जैसे -
1. Direct - The pupil said to the teacher, "Thank you, sir, for your help."
Indirect - The pupil respectfully thanked the teacher for his help.
2. Direct - She said,"I hope my mother will come tomorrow."
Indirect - She hoped that my mother would come the next day.   

Direct and Indirect Narration

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