It is used to expressed an action which happened or completed in the past time or usually the two actions which happened or completed one by one in the past time.



Affirmative Sentences
Rule 1:  Subject (Single number/third person/Plural number) + had + 3rd Form of Verb + Object

Rule 2:  Where ever you'll see the use of 'before' in combining the two past sentences of this tense, the action which would be completed before would be in 'Past Perfect Tense' and the action completed after would be in 'Past Simple Tense'. (see examples 1,2,3)

Rule 2:  Where ever you'll see the use of 'After' in combining the two past sentences of this tense, the action which would be completed after would be 'Principal Clause' in 'Past Simple Tense' and the action completed before would be 'Subordinate clause' in 'Past Perfect Tense'. (see examples 4)

Examples:
1. We had reached home before it rained.
2. The train had started before I reached the station.
3. She had read her book before she slept.
4. John went to school after he had learnt his lesson.
5. I had already heard this news.


Negative Sentences
Rule 1:  Subject (Single number/third person/Plural number) + had + not + 3rd Form of Verb + Object

Examples:

1. I had not seen this house before.
2. The patient had not died before the doctor came.
3. The thief had not run away before the police came.
4. The teacher had not finished the course before the examination began.


Interrogative Sentences

Rule 1:  Had + Subject (Single number/third person/Plural number) + 3rd Form of Verb + Object 
(See Examples 1, 2,3)

Rule 2: when/why/what/where + had + Subject + 3rd Form of Verb + Object (See Example 6)


Rule 3: how much/how many/whose/which also used with their related nouns.(See Examples 4, 5)

Rule 4: Interrogative negative sentences are just like Interrogative affirmative sentences with only use of not after subject.
Had + subject + not + 3rd form of verb
(See example 3)

Rule 5: Must put Question Mark (?) in the end of sentence.

Examples:

1. Had the bell rung before I reached the school?
2. Had they taken tea before the sun rose?
3. Had we not reached the bus-stand before the bus started?
4. How many children had slept before sunset?
5. Which song had that girl sung before we came?
6. Why had you written a letter before I slept?
7. What did the patient eat after the doctor had gone?

Tenses - English to English Translation
Simple Tense

 Continuous Tense

Perfect Tense


Tenses - Hindi to English Translation
Simple Tense

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